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Title: Deformation of contact surfaces in a vacuum interrupter after high-current interruptions

Abstract

In a high-current interruption, the contact surface in a vacuum interrupter might be severely damaged by constricted vacuum arcs causing a molten area on it. As a result, a protrusion will be initiated by a transient recovery voltage after current zero, enhancing the local electric field and making breakdowns occur easier. The objective of this paper is to simulate the deformation process on the molten area under a high electric field by adopting the finite element method. A time-dependent Electrohydrodynamic model was established, and the liquid-gas interface was tracked by the level-set method. From the results, the liquid metal can be deformed to a Taylor cone if the applied electric field is above a critical value. This value is correlated to the initial geometry of the liquid metal, which increases as the size of the liquid metal decreases. Moreover, the buildup time of a Taylor cone obeys the power law t = k × E{sup −3}, where E is the initial electric field and k is a coefficient related to the material property, indicating a temporal self-similar characteristic. In addition, the influence of temperature has little impact on the deformation but has great impact on electron emission. Finally, the possiblemore » reason to initiate a delayed breakdown is associated with the deformation. The breakdown does not occur immediately when the voltage is just applied upon the gap but is postponed to several milliseconds later when the tip is formed on the liquid metal.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22597687
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 120; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; BREAKDOWN; BUILDUP; DAMAGE; DEFORMATION; ELECTRIC FIELDS; ELECTRIC POTENTIAL; ELECTRON EMISSION; ELECTRONS; FINITE ELEMENT METHOD; INTERFACES; LIQUID METALS; SURFACES; TIME DEPENDENCE

Citation Formats

Wang, Haoran, Wang, Zhenxing, E-mail: zxwang@xjtu.edu.cn, Zhou, Zhipeng, Jiang, Yanjun, Wang, Jianhua, Geng, Yingsan, and Liu, Zhiyuan. Deformation of contact surfaces in a vacuum interrupter after high-current interruptions. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4960447.
Wang, Haoran, Wang, Zhenxing, E-mail: zxwang@xjtu.edu.cn, Zhou, Zhipeng, Jiang, Yanjun, Wang, Jianhua, Geng, Yingsan, & Liu, Zhiyuan. Deformation of contact surfaces in a vacuum interrupter after high-current interruptions. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4960447.
Wang, Haoran, Wang, Zhenxing, E-mail: zxwang@xjtu.edu.cn, Zhou, Zhipeng, Jiang, Yanjun, Wang, Jianhua, Geng, Yingsan, and Liu, Zhiyuan. Sun . "Deformation of contact surfaces in a vacuum interrupter after high-current interruptions". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4960447.
@article{osti_22597687,
title = {Deformation of contact surfaces in a vacuum interrupter after high-current interruptions},
author = {Wang, Haoran and Wang, Zhenxing, E-mail: zxwang@xjtu.edu.cn and Zhou, Zhipeng and Jiang, Yanjun and Wang, Jianhua and Geng, Yingsan and Liu, Zhiyuan},
abstractNote = {In a high-current interruption, the contact surface in a vacuum interrupter might be severely damaged by constricted vacuum arcs causing a molten area on it. As a result, a protrusion will be initiated by a transient recovery voltage after current zero, enhancing the local electric field and making breakdowns occur easier. The objective of this paper is to simulate the deformation process on the molten area under a high electric field by adopting the finite element method. A time-dependent Electrohydrodynamic model was established, and the liquid-gas interface was tracked by the level-set method. From the results, the liquid metal can be deformed to a Taylor cone if the applied electric field is above a critical value. This value is correlated to the initial geometry of the liquid metal, which increases as the size of the liquid metal decreases. Moreover, the buildup time of a Taylor cone obeys the power law t = k × E{sup −3}, where E is the initial electric field and k is a coefficient related to the material property, indicating a temporal self-similar characteristic. In addition, the influence of temperature has little impact on the deformation but has great impact on electron emission. Finally, the possible reason to initiate a delayed breakdown is associated with the deformation. The breakdown does not occur immediately when the voltage is just applied upon the gap but is postponed to several milliseconds later when the tip is formed on the liquid metal.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4960447},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 5,
volume = 120,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Aug 07 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Sun Aug 07 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}