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Title: Experimental investigation of defect-assisted and intrinsic water vapor permeation through ultrabarrier films

Abstract

In the development of ultrabarrier films for packaging electronics, the effective water vapor transmission rate is a combination of permeation through pinhole defects and the intrinsic permeation through the actual barrier film. While it is possible to measure the effective permeation rate through barriers, it is important to develop a better understanding of the contribution from defects to the overall effective barrier performance. Here, we demonstrate a method to investigate independently defect-assisted permeation and intrinsic permeation rates by observing the degradation of a calcium layer encapsulated with a hybrid barrier film, that is, prepared using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and plasma enhanced deposition (PECVD). The results are rationalized using an analytical diffusion model to calculate the permeation rate as a function of spatial position within the barrier. It was observed that a barrier film consisting of a PECVD SiN{sub x} layer combined with an ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/HfO{sub x} nanolaminate resulted in a defect-assisted water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of 4.84 × 10{sup −5} g/m{sup 2} day and intrinsic WVTR of 1.41 × 10{sup −4} g/m{sup 2} day at 50 °C/85% RH. Due to the low defect density of the tested barrier film, the defect-assisted WVTR was found to be threemore » times lower than the intrinsic WVTR, and an effective (or total) WVTR value was 1.89 × 10{sup −4} g/m{sup 2} day. Thus, improvements of the barrier performance should focus on reducing the number of defects while also improving the intrinsic barrier performance of the hybrid layer.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ; ;  [3];  [1];  [4]
  1. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)
  2. School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)
  3. School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)
  4. (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22597088
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 87; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: (c) 2016 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ALUMINIUM OXIDES; CALCIUM; CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; DEFECTS; DENSITY; DIFFUSION BARRIERS; FILMS; HYBRIDIZATION; LAYERS; PERFORMANCE; PLASMA; TRANSMISSION; WATER; WATER VAPOR

Citation Formats

Kim, Hyungchul, Singh, Ankit Kumar, Wang, Cheng-Yin, Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek, Kippelen, Bernard, Graham, Samuel, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332. Experimental investigation of defect-assisted and intrinsic water vapor permeation through ultrabarrier films. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4942510.
Kim, Hyungchul, Singh, Ankit Kumar, Wang, Cheng-Yin, Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek, Kippelen, Bernard, Graham, Samuel, & School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332. Experimental investigation of defect-assisted and intrinsic water vapor permeation through ultrabarrier films. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4942510.
Kim, Hyungchul, Singh, Ankit Kumar, Wang, Cheng-Yin, Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek, Kippelen, Bernard, Graham, Samuel, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332. Tue . "Experimental investigation of defect-assisted and intrinsic water vapor permeation through ultrabarrier films". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4942510.
@article{osti_22597088,
title = {Experimental investigation of defect-assisted and intrinsic water vapor permeation through ultrabarrier films},
author = {Kim, Hyungchul and Singh, Ankit Kumar and Wang, Cheng-Yin and Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek and Kippelen, Bernard and Graham, Samuel and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332},
abstractNote = {In the development of ultrabarrier films for packaging electronics, the effective water vapor transmission rate is a combination of permeation through pinhole defects and the intrinsic permeation through the actual barrier film. While it is possible to measure the effective permeation rate through barriers, it is important to develop a better understanding of the contribution from defects to the overall effective barrier performance. Here, we demonstrate a method to investigate independently defect-assisted permeation and intrinsic permeation rates by observing the degradation of a calcium layer encapsulated with a hybrid barrier film, that is, prepared using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and plasma enhanced deposition (PECVD). The results are rationalized using an analytical diffusion model to calculate the permeation rate as a function of spatial position within the barrier. It was observed that a barrier film consisting of a PECVD SiN{sub x} layer combined with an ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/HfO{sub x} nanolaminate resulted in a defect-assisted water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of 4.84 × 10{sup −5} g/m{sup 2} day and intrinsic WVTR of 1.41 × 10{sup −4} g/m{sup 2} day at 50 °C/85% RH. Due to the low defect density of the tested barrier film, the defect-assisted WVTR was found to be three times lower than the intrinsic WVTR, and an effective (or total) WVTR value was 1.89 × 10{sup −4} g/m{sup 2} day. Thus, improvements of the barrier performance should focus on reducing the number of defects while also improving the intrinsic barrier performance of the hybrid layer.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4942510},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 3,
volume = 87,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Tue Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}