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Title: Influence of annealing temperature and Sn doping on the optical properties of hematite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry

Abstract

Hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films were prepared by sol-gel route and investigated for application in H{sub 2} generation by photo-assisted water splitting. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance was shown to increase significantly for films deposited on SnO{sub 2}:F/glass subjected to high temperature (T) annealing (>750 °C). Strong correlation was found between photogenerated current, donor concentration, and Sn concentration as determined by Mott-Schottky analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effects of thermal annealing and Sn addition in the resulting microstructure and optical properties of hematite films deposited on fused silica substrates were determined by a combination of structural characterization techniques and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Thermal annealing (>600 °C) induces a higher optical absorption that is associated directly to film densification and grain growth; however, it promotes no changes in the energy positions of the main Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} electronic transitions. The band gap energy was found to be 2.21 eV and independent of microstructure and of Sn concentration for all studied films. On the other hand, Sn can be incorporated in the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} lattice for concentration up to Sn/Fe ∼2%, leading to an increase in energy split of the main absorption peak, attributed to a distortion of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} lattice. Formore » higher concentrations, Sn incorporation leads to a reduction in absorption, associated with higher porosity and the formation of a secondary Sn-rich phase. In summary, the variation in the optical properties induced by thermal annealing and Sn addition cannot account for the order of magnitude increase of the current density generated by photoanodes annealed at high T (>750 °C); thus, it is concluded that the major contribution for the enhanced PEC performance comes from improved electronic properties induced by the n-type doping caused by Sn diffusion from the SnO{sub 2}:F substrate.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Department of Physics, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte 31270-901 (Brazil)
  2. Department of Physics, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa 36570-900 (Brazil)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22596672
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 119; Journal Issue: 24; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ABSORPTION; ANNEALING; CONCENTRATION RATIO; CURRENT DENSITY; ELLIPSOMETRY; FERRITES; HEMATITE; HYDROGEN; IRON OXIDES; MICROSTRUCTURE; OPTICAL PROPERTIES; PHOTOANODES; POROSITY; SILICA; SOL-GEL PROCESS; SUBSTRATES; TEMPERATURE RANGE 1000-4000 K; THIN FILMS; TIN OXIDES; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Souza, Lígia P. de, Chaves, Rodrigo O. G., Malachias, Angelo, Paniago, Roberto, Ferlauto, Andre S., and Ferreira, Sukarno O.. Influence of annealing temperature and Sn doping on the optical properties of hematite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4954315.
Souza, Lígia P. de, Chaves, Rodrigo O. G., Malachias, Angelo, Paniago, Roberto, Ferlauto, Andre S., & Ferreira, Sukarno O.. Influence of annealing temperature and Sn doping on the optical properties of hematite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4954315.
Souza, Lígia P. de, Chaves, Rodrigo O. G., Malachias, Angelo, Paniago, Roberto, Ferlauto, Andre S., and Ferreira, Sukarno O.. Tue . "Influence of annealing temperature and Sn doping on the optical properties of hematite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4954315.
@article{osti_22596672,
title = {Influence of annealing temperature and Sn doping on the optical properties of hematite thin films determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry},
author = {Souza, Lígia P. de and Chaves, Rodrigo O. G. and Malachias, Angelo and Paniago, Roberto and Ferlauto, Andre S. and Ferreira, Sukarno O.},
abstractNote = {Hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) thin films were prepared by sol-gel route and investigated for application in H{sub 2} generation by photo-assisted water splitting. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance was shown to increase significantly for films deposited on SnO{sub 2}:F/glass subjected to high temperature (T) annealing (>750 °C). Strong correlation was found between photogenerated current, donor concentration, and Sn concentration as determined by Mott-Schottky analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effects of thermal annealing and Sn addition in the resulting microstructure and optical properties of hematite films deposited on fused silica substrates were determined by a combination of structural characterization techniques and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Thermal annealing (>600 °C) induces a higher optical absorption that is associated directly to film densification and grain growth; however, it promotes no changes in the energy positions of the main Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} electronic transitions. The band gap energy was found to be 2.21 eV and independent of microstructure and of Sn concentration for all studied films. On the other hand, Sn can be incorporated in the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} lattice for concentration up to Sn/Fe ∼2%, leading to an increase in energy split of the main absorption peak, attributed to a distortion of the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} lattice. For higher concentrations, Sn incorporation leads to a reduction in absorption, associated with higher porosity and the formation of a secondary Sn-rich phase. In summary, the variation in the optical properties induced by thermal annealing and Sn addition cannot account for the order of magnitude increase of the current density generated by photoanodes annealed at high T (>750 °C); thus, it is concluded that the major contribution for the enhanced PEC performance comes from improved electronic properties induced by the n-type doping caused by Sn diffusion from the SnO{sub 2}:F substrate.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4954315},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 24,
volume = 119,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jun 28 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Tue Jun 28 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
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