skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: On the ideality factor of the radiative recombination current in semiconductor light-emitting diodes

Abstract

While there have been many discussions on the standard Si pn-diodes, little attention has been paid and confusion still arises on the ideality factor of the radiative recombination current in semiconductor light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In this letter, we theoretically demonstrate and experimentally confirm by using blue and infrared semiconductor LEDs that the ideality factor of the radiative recombination current is unity especially for low-current-density ranges. We utilize the data of internal quantum efficiency measured by the temperature-dependent electroluminescence to separate the radiative current component from the total current.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3]
  1. Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, ERICA Campus, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)
  2. Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Hanyang University, ERICA Campus, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of)
  3. (Korea, Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22594462
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 109; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; CURRENT DENSITY; CURRENTS; ELECTROLUMINESCENCE; LIGHT EMITTING DIODES; QUANTUM EFFICIENCY; RECOMBINATION; SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIALS; SILICON; SILICON DIODES; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE

Citation Formats

Lee, Gyeong Won, Shim, Jong-In, Shin, Dong-Soo, E-mail: dshin@hanyang.ac.kr, and Department of Applied Physics, Hanyang University, ERICA Campus, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 426-791. On the ideality factor of the radiative recombination current in semiconductor light-emitting diodes. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4959081.
Lee, Gyeong Won, Shim, Jong-In, Shin, Dong-Soo, E-mail: dshin@hanyang.ac.kr, & Department of Applied Physics, Hanyang University, ERICA Campus, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 426-791. On the ideality factor of the radiative recombination current in semiconductor light-emitting diodes. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4959081.
Lee, Gyeong Won, Shim, Jong-In, Shin, Dong-Soo, E-mail: dshin@hanyang.ac.kr, and Department of Applied Physics, Hanyang University, ERICA Campus, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 426-791. 2016. "On the ideality factor of the radiative recombination current in semiconductor light-emitting diodes". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4959081.
@article{osti_22594462,
title = {On the ideality factor of the radiative recombination current in semiconductor light-emitting diodes},
author = {Lee, Gyeong Won and Shim, Jong-In and Shin, Dong-Soo, E-mail: dshin@hanyang.ac.kr and Department of Applied Physics, Hanyang University, ERICA Campus, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do 426-791},
abstractNote = {While there have been many discussions on the standard Si pn-diodes, little attention has been paid and confusion still arises on the ideality factor of the radiative recombination current in semiconductor light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In this letter, we theoretically demonstrate and experimentally confirm by using blue and infrared semiconductor LEDs that the ideality factor of the radiative recombination current is unity especially for low-current-density ranges. We utilize the data of internal quantum efficiency measured by the temperature-dependent electroluminescence to separate the radiative current component from the total current.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4959081},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 3,
volume = 109,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}
  • We present a theoretical analysis of radiative recombination process in active layers of blue/green InGaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) in the framework of a quantum disk model. Taking the structural and compositional inhomogeneity and the finite subband-states effects into account we modify the optical absorption and energy relaxation equations for quantum-disk systems. The carrier relaxation dynamic process and related time-dependent photoluminescence spectra are calculated numerically. Our results show that the quantum-disk model can interpret the main optical properties of InGaN-based LEDs reasonably. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.
  • The temperature dependence of the radiative recombination zone in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well light-emitting diodes is investigated. >From the electroluminescence spectra measured at various temperatures, it is found that there are two peaks at about 400 and 460 nm, which can be assigned as Mg-related and quantum well transitions, respectively. The behavior of these two peaks with temperature is modeled by the two rate equation. Based on this model, we deduce the activation energy of Mg in GaN films to be about 126 meV, which is consistent with reported results obtained by other techniques. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.
  • This paper presents an extensive investigation of the deep levels related to non-radiative recombination in InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The study is based on combined optical and deep-level transient spectroscopy measurements, carried out on LEDs with identical structure and with different values of the non-radiative recombination coefficient. Experimental data lead to the following, relevant, results: (i) LEDs with a high non-radiative recombination coefficient have a higher concentration of a trap (labeled as “e{sub 2}”) with an activation energy of 0.7 eV, which is supposed to be located close to/within the active region; (ii) measurements carried out with varying filling pulsemore » duration suggest that this deep level behaves as a point-defect/dislocation complex. The Arrhenius plot of this deep level is critically compared with the previous literature reports, to identify its physical origin.« less
  • This paper describes the properties of Ge{sub 1−y}Sn{sub y} light emitting diodes with a broad range of Sn concentrations (y = 0.0–0.11). The devices are grown upon Si(100) platforms using ultra-low temperature deposition of highly reactive Ge and Sn hydrides. The device fabrication adopts two new photodiode designs which lead to optimized performance and enables a systematic study of the effects of strain relaxation on emission efficiency. In contrast with n-Ge/i-Ge{sub 1−y}Sn{sub y}/p-Ge analogs, which in most cases contain two defected interfaces, our designs include a p-layer with composition Ge{sub 1−z}Sn{sub z} chosen to be z < y to facilitate light extraction, but withmore » z close enough to y to guarantee no strain relaxation at the i/p interface. In addition, a Ge{sub 1−x}Sn{sub x} alloy is also used for the n layer, with compositions in the 0 ≤ x ≤ y range, so that defected and non-defected n/i interfaces can be studied. The electroluminescence spectra vs the Sn content y in the intrinsic layer of the diodes exhibit a monotonic shift in the emission wavelength from 1550 nm to 2500 nm. On the other hand, the emission intensities show a complex dependence that cannot be explained solely on the basis of Sn concentrations. Detailed theoretical modeling of these intensities makes it possible to extract recombination lifetimes that are found to be more than three times longer in samples in which strain relaxation has not occurred at the n-i interface, demonstrating the existence of a large non-radiative contribution from the relaxation defects. This finding is particularly significant for direct gap diodes with y > 0.09, for which it is practically impossible to avoid strain relaxation in n-Ge/i-Ge{sub 1−y}Sn{sub y}/p-Ge analogs. The new designs introduced here open the door to the fabrication of highly efficient electrically pumped systems for applications in future generations of integrated photonics.« less
  • Two kinds of green InGaN light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been investigated in order to understand the different slopes in logarithmic light output power-current (L-I) curves. Through the analysis of the carrier rate equation and by considering the carrier density-dependent the injection efficiency into quantum wells, the slopes of the logarithmic L-I curves can be more rigorously understood. The low current level, two as the tunneling current is initially dominant. The high current level beyond the peak of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) diminishes below one as the carrier overflow becomes dominant. In addition, the normalized carrier injection efficiency canmore » be obtained by analyzing the slopes of the logarithmic L-I curves. The carrier injection efficiency decreases after the EQE peak of the InGaN LEDs, determined from the analysis of the slopes of the logarithmic L-I curves.« less