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Title: Thick homoepitaxial (110)-oriented phosphorus-doped n-type diamond

Abstract

The fabrication of n-type diamond is essential for the realization of electronic components for extreme environments. We report on the growth of a 66 μm thick homoepitaxial phosphorus-doped diamond on a (110)-oriented diamond substrate, grown at a very high deposition rate of 33 μm h{sup −1}. A pristine diamond lattice is observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, which indicates the growth of high quality diamond. About 2.9 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} phosphorus atoms are electrically active as substitutional donors, which is 60% of all incorporated dopant atoms. These results indicate that P-doped (110)-oriented diamond films deposited at high growth rates are promising candidates for future use in high-power electronic applications.

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]; ; ;  [3]; ; ;  [4];  [1];  [5]
  1. Institute for Materials Research (IMO), Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium)
  2. (Belgium)
  3. Groupe d'Etude de la Matière Condensée (GEMaC), Université de Versailles St. Quentin en Yvelines, CNRS, Université Paris Saclay, 45 ave. des Etats-Unis, F-78035 Versailles (France)
  4. EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)
  5. Institut d'Electronique, Microélectronique et Nanotechnologie (IEMN/CNRS 8520), Université Lille, Ave. Poincaré-BP 60069, F-59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22594310
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 109; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ATOMS; DEPOSITION; DEPOSITS; DIAMONDS; DOPED MATERIALS; FABRICATION; FCC LATTICES; FILMS; N-TYPE CONDUCTORS; PHOSPHORUS; SUBSTRATES; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Balasubramaniam, Y., Pobedinskas, P., E-mail: paulius.pobedinskas@uhasselt.be, Janssens, S. D., Nesládek, M., Haenen, K., E-mail: ken.haenen@uhasselt.be, IMOMEC, IMEC vzw, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Sakr, G., Jomard, F., Barjon, J., Turner, S., Lu, Y.-G., Verbeeck, J., Dexters, W., and Soltani, A. Thick homoepitaxial (110)-oriented phosphorus-doped n-type diamond. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4960970.
Balasubramaniam, Y., Pobedinskas, P., E-mail: paulius.pobedinskas@uhasselt.be, Janssens, S. D., Nesládek, M., Haenen, K., E-mail: ken.haenen@uhasselt.be, IMOMEC, IMEC vzw, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Sakr, G., Jomard, F., Barjon, J., Turner, S., Lu, Y.-G., Verbeeck, J., Dexters, W., & Soltani, A. Thick homoepitaxial (110)-oriented phosphorus-doped n-type diamond. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4960970.
Balasubramaniam, Y., Pobedinskas, P., E-mail: paulius.pobedinskas@uhasselt.be, Janssens, S. D., Nesládek, M., Haenen, K., E-mail: ken.haenen@uhasselt.be, IMOMEC, IMEC vzw, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek, Sakr, G., Jomard, F., Barjon, J., Turner, S., Lu, Y.-G., Verbeeck, J., Dexters, W., and Soltani, A. Mon . "Thick homoepitaxial (110)-oriented phosphorus-doped n-type diamond". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4960970.
@article{osti_22594310,
title = {Thick homoepitaxial (110)-oriented phosphorus-doped n-type diamond},
author = {Balasubramaniam, Y. and Pobedinskas, P., E-mail: paulius.pobedinskas@uhasselt.be and Janssens, S. D. and Nesládek, M. and Haenen, K., E-mail: ken.haenen@uhasselt.be and IMOMEC, IMEC vzw, Wetenschapspark 1, B-3590 Diepenbeek and Sakr, G. and Jomard, F. and Barjon, J. and Turner, S. and Lu, Y.-G. and Verbeeck, J. and Dexters, W. and Soltani, A.},
abstractNote = {The fabrication of n-type diamond is essential for the realization of electronic components for extreme environments. We report on the growth of a 66 μm thick homoepitaxial phosphorus-doped diamond on a (110)-oriented diamond substrate, grown at a very high deposition rate of 33 μm h{sup −1}. A pristine diamond lattice is observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, which indicates the growth of high quality diamond. About 2.9 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} phosphorus atoms are electrically active as substitutional donors, which is 60% of all incorporated dopant atoms. These results indicate that P-doped (110)-oriented diamond films deposited at high growth rates are promising candidates for future use in high-power electronic applications.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4960970},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 6,
volume = 109,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Aug 08 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Mon Aug 08 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • n-type doping of (001)-oriented single-crystalline diamond has been achieved using PH{sub 3} as doping gas and applying a newly optimized homoepitaxial growth technique based on plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Hall-effect measurements indicate n-type conductivity with highest mobilities of {approx}350 cm{sup 2}/Vs. Phosphorus doping is confirmed by secondary-ion mass spectroscopy.
  • Both doped and undoped homoepitaxial diamond films were fabricated using microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The conductivity of the diamond film is strongly affected by the surface treatment. In particular, exposure of film surface to a hydrogen plasma results in the formation of a conductive layer which can be used to obtain linear (ohmic) {ital I-V} characteristics of the Au/diamond contacts, regardless of the doping level. The proper chemical cleaning of the boron-doped homoepitaxial diamond surface allows the fabrication of Au-gate Schottky diodes with excellent rectifying characteristics at temperatures of at least 400{degrees}C.
  • To develop further diamond related devices, the concentration and spatial location of dopants should be controlled down to the nanometer scale. Scanning transmission electron microscopy using the high angle annular dark field mode is shown to be sensitive to boron doping in diamond epilayers. An analytical procedure is described, whereby local boron concentrations above 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} were quantitatively derived down to nanometer resolution from the signal dependence on thickness and boron content. Experimental boron local doping profiles measured on diamond p{sup −}/p{sup ++}/p{sup −} multilayers are compared to macroscopic profiles obtained by secondary ion mass spectrometry, avoiding reportedmore » artefacts.« less
  • The optimization of diamond-based unipolar electronic devices such as pseudo-vertical Schottky diodes or delta-doped field effect transistors relies in part on the sequential growth of nominally undoped (p{sup –}) and heavily boron doped (p{sup ++}) layers with well-controlled thicknesses and steep interfaces. Optical ellipsometry offers a swift and contactless method to characterize the thickness, roughness, and electronic properties of semiconducting and metallic diamond layers. We report ellipsometric studies carried out on delta-doped structures and other epitaxial multilayers with various boron concentrations and thicknesses (down to the nanometer range). The results are compared with Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy and transport measurements.