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Title: Temporal dependence of transient dark counts in an avalanche photodiode: A solution for power-law behavior of afterpulsing

Abstract

This paper offers a theoretical explanation of the temperature and temporal dependencies of transient dark count rates (DCRs) measured for a linear-mode silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) and the dependencies of afterpulsing that were measured in Geiger-mode Si and InGaAs/InP APDs. The temporal dependencies exhibit power-law behavior, at least to some extent. For the transient DCR, the value of the DCR for a given time period increases with decreases in temperature, while the power-law behavior remains unchanged. The transient DCR is attributed to electron emissions from traps in the multiplication layer of the APD with a high electric field, and its temporal dependence is explained by a continuous change in the electron emission rate as a function of the electric field strength. The electron emission rate is calculated using a quantum model for phonon-assisted tunnel emission. We applied the theory to the temporal dependence of afterpulsing that was measured for Si and InGaAs/InP APDs. The power-law temporal dependence is attributed to the power-law function of the electron emission rate from the traps as a function of their position across the p–n junction of the APD. Deviations from the power-law temporal dependence can be derived from the upper and lower limits ofmore » the electric field strength.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1, Nukuikitamachi, Koganei-City, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan)
  2. Department of Physics, School of Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1, Kawadacho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22594309
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 109; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; COUNTING RATES; ELECTRIC FIELDS; ELECTRON EMISSION; ELECTRONS; GALLIUM ARSENIDES; INDIUM ARSENIDES; INDIUM PHOSPHIDES; LAYERS; PHONONS; PHOTODIODES; P-N JUNCTIONS; SILICON; TRANSIENTS; TRAPS

Citation Formats

Akiba, M., E-mail: akiba@nict.go.jp, and Tsujino, K. Temporal dependence of transient dark counts in an avalanche photodiode: A solution for power-law behavior of afterpulsing. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4960819.
Akiba, M., E-mail: akiba@nict.go.jp, & Tsujino, K. Temporal dependence of transient dark counts in an avalanche photodiode: A solution for power-law behavior of afterpulsing. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4960819.
Akiba, M., E-mail: akiba@nict.go.jp, and Tsujino, K. Mon . "Temporal dependence of transient dark counts in an avalanche photodiode: A solution for power-law behavior of afterpulsing". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4960819.
@article{osti_22594309,
title = {Temporal dependence of transient dark counts in an avalanche photodiode: A solution for power-law behavior of afterpulsing},
author = {Akiba, M., E-mail: akiba@nict.go.jp and Tsujino, K.},
abstractNote = {This paper offers a theoretical explanation of the temperature and temporal dependencies of transient dark count rates (DCRs) measured for a linear-mode silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) and the dependencies of afterpulsing that were measured in Geiger-mode Si and InGaAs/InP APDs. The temporal dependencies exhibit power-law behavior, at least to some extent. For the transient DCR, the value of the DCR for a given time period increases with decreases in temperature, while the power-law behavior remains unchanged. The transient DCR is attributed to electron emissions from traps in the multiplication layer of the APD with a high electric field, and its temporal dependence is explained by a continuous change in the electron emission rate as a function of the electric field strength. The electron emission rate is calculated using a quantum model for phonon-assisted tunnel emission. We applied the theory to the temporal dependence of afterpulsing that was measured for Si and InGaAs/InP APDs. The power-law temporal dependence is attributed to the power-law function of the electron emission rate from the traps as a function of their position across the p–n junction of the APD. Deviations from the power-law temporal dependence can be derived from the upper and lower limits of the electric field strength.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4960819},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 6,
volume = 109,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Aug 08 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Mon Aug 08 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • A dark count rate in InP-based single photon counting avalanche photodiodes is a limiting factor to their efficacy. The temperature dependence of the dark count rate was studied to understand its origin in In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As/In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.48}As separate-absorption-charge-multiplication avalanche photodiodes. The dark count rate was observed to be a very weak function of temperature in the range from 77 K to 300 K. Various mechanisms for dark count generation were considered. Simulations of band-to-band tunneling in the In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.48}As multiplication layer were found to agree well with the experimental temperature dependence of dark count rate at various excessmore » biases. To reduce tunneling-induced dark counts, a suitable design change to the detector structure is proposed.« less
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