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Title: Growth and coalescence control of inclined c-axis polar and semipolar GaN multilayer structures grown on Si(111), Si(112), and Si(115) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

Abstract

Herein, silicon substrates in alternative orientations from the commonly used Si(111) were used to enable the growth of polar and semipolar GaN-based structures by the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy method. Specifically, Si(112) and Si(115) substrates were used for the epitaxial growth of nitride multilayer structures, while the same layer schemes were also deposited on Si(111) for comparison purposes. Multiple approaches were studied to examine the influence of the seed layers and the growth process conditions upon the final properties of the GaN/Si(11x) templates. Scanning electron microscope images were acquired to examine the topography of the deposited samples. It was observed that the substrate orientation and the process conditions allow control to produce an isolated GaN block growth or a coalesced layer growth, resulting in inclined c-axis GaN structures under various forms. The angles of the GaN c-axis inclination were determined by x-ray diffraction measurements and compared with the results obtained from the analysis of the atomic force microscope (AFM) images. The AFM image analysis method to determine the structure tilt was found to be a viable method to estimate the c-axis inclination angles of the isolated blocks and the not-fully coalesced layers. The quality of the grown samples was characterizedmore » by the photoluminescence method conducted at a wide range of temperatures from 77 to 297 K, and was correlated with the sample degree of coalescence. Using the free-excitation peak positions plotted as a function of temperature, analytical Bose-Einstein model parameters were fitted to obtain further information about the grown structures.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. The Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw (Poland)
  2. The Institute of Electron Technology, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22592857
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films; Journal Volume: 34; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: (c) 2016 American Vacuum Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY; BOSE-EINSTEIN STATISTICS; COALESCENCE; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; CONTROL; DEPOSITS; GALLIUM NITRIDES; IMAGE PROCESSING; IMAGES; LAYERS; PHOTOLUMINESCENCE; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SILICON; SUBSTRATES; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; VAPOR PHASE EPITAXY; VAPORS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Szymański, Tomasz, E-mail: tomasz.szymanski@pwr.edu.pl, Wośko, Mateusz, Paszkiewicz, Bartłomiej, Paszkiewicz, Bogdan, Paszkiewicz, Regina, and Sankowska, Iwona. Growth and coalescence control of inclined c-axis polar and semipolar GaN multilayer structures grown on Si(111), Si(112), and Si(115) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1116/1.4958805.
Szymański, Tomasz, E-mail: tomasz.szymanski@pwr.edu.pl, Wośko, Mateusz, Paszkiewicz, Bartłomiej, Paszkiewicz, Bogdan, Paszkiewicz, Regina, & Sankowska, Iwona. Growth and coalescence control of inclined c-axis polar and semipolar GaN multilayer structures grown on Si(111), Si(112), and Si(115) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. United States. doi:10.1116/1.4958805.
Szymański, Tomasz, E-mail: tomasz.szymanski@pwr.edu.pl, Wośko, Mateusz, Paszkiewicz, Bartłomiej, Paszkiewicz, Bogdan, Paszkiewicz, Regina, and Sankowska, Iwona. 2016. "Growth and coalescence control of inclined c-axis polar and semipolar GaN multilayer structures grown on Si(111), Si(112), and Si(115) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy". United States. doi:10.1116/1.4958805.
@article{osti_22592857,
title = {Growth and coalescence control of inclined c-axis polar and semipolar GaN multilayer structures grown on Si(111), Si(112), and Si(115) by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy},
author = {Szymański, Tomasz, E-mail: tomasz.szymanski@pwr.edu.pl and Wośko, Mateusz and Paszkiewicz, Bartłomiej and Paszkiewicz, Bogdan and Paszkiewicz, Regina and Sankowska, Iwona},
abstractNote = {Herein, silicon substrates in alternative orientations from the commonly used Si(111) were used to enable the growth of polar and semipolar GaN-based structures by the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy method. Specifically, Si(112) and Si(115) substrates were used for the epitaxial growth of nitride multilayer structures, while the same layer schemes were also deposited on Si(111) for comparison purposes. Multiple approaches were studied to examine the influence of the seed layers and the growth process conditions upon the final properties of the GaN/Si(11x) templates. Scanning electron microscope images were acquired to examine the topography of the deposited samples. It was observed that the substrate orientation and the process conditions allow control to produce an isolated GaN block growth or a coalesced layer growth, resulting in inclined c-axis GaN structures under various forms. The angles of the GaN c-axis inclination were determined by x-ray diffraction measurements and compared with the results obtained from the analysis of the atomic force microscope (AFM) images. The AFM image analysis method to determine the structure tilt was found to be a viable method to estimate the c-axis inclination angles of the isolated blocks and the not-fully coalesced layers. The quality of the grown samples was characterized by the photoluminescence method conducted at a wide range of temperatures from 77 to 297 K, and was correlated with the sample degree of coalescence. Using the free-excitation peak positions plotted as a function of temperature, analytical Bose-Einstein model parameters were fitted to obtain further information about the grown structures.},
doi = {10.1116/1.4958805},
journal = {Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films},
number = 5,
volume = 34,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}
  • InGaN layers were grown simultaneously on (112⁻2) GaN and (0001) GaN templates by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. At higher growth temperature (≥750°C), the indium content (<15%) of the (112⁻2) and (0001) InGaN layers was similar. However, for temperatures less than 750°C, the indium content of the (112⁻2) InGaN layers (15%–26%) were generally lower than those with (0001) orientation (15%–32%). The compositional deviation was attributed to the different strain relaxations between the (112⁻2) and (0001) InGaN layers. Room temperature photoluminescence measurements of the (112⁻2) InGaN layers showed an emission wavelength that shifts gradually from 380 nm to 580 nm with decreasingmore » growth temperature (or increasing indium composition). The peak emission wavelength of the (112⁻2) InGaN layers with an indium content of more than 10% blue-shifted a constant value of ≈(50–60) nm when using higher excitation power densities. This blue-shift was attributed to band filling effects in the layers.« less
  • The metastable zincblende (ZB) phase in N-polar (0001{sup ¯}) (−c-plane) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy is elucidated by the electron backscatter diffraction measurements. From the comparison between the −c-plane and Ga-polar (0001) (+c-plane), the −c-plane MQWs were found to be suffered from the severe ZB-phase inclusion, while ZB-inclusion is negligible in the +c-plane MQWs grown under the same growth conditions. The ZB-phase inclusion is a hurdle for fabricating the −c-plane light-emitting diodes because the islands with a triangular shape appeared on a surface in the ZB-phase domains. To improve the purity of stable wurtzitemore » (WZ)-phase, the optimum conditions were investigated. The ZB-phase is dramatically eliminated with decreasing the V/III ratio and increasing the growth temperature. To obtain much-higher-quality MQWs, the thinner InGaN wells and the hydrogen introduction during GaN barriers growth were tried. Consequently, MQWs with almost pure WZ phase and with atomically smooth surface have been demonstrated.« less
  • Growth characteristics of (100)-oriented CdZnTe layers grown by atmospheric-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy have been studied using dimethylzinc (DMZn), dimethylcadmium (DMCd), diethyltelluride (DETe), and dimethyltelluride (DMTe) as precursors. Variations of Zn composition and layer growth rate were examined by changing the DMZn supply ratio, defined as DMZn/(DMCd+DMZn), where the precursors are expressed in appropriate units of flow rate, from 0 (no DMZn) to 1.0 (no DMCd), while keeping the total group II supply rate constant. The growth rate of CdZnTe layers was found to decrease monotonically with increase of the DMZn supply ratio. On the other hand, the Zn compositionmore » x of grown layers increased gradually up to x = 0.04 with increase of the DMZn supply ratio from 0 to 0.8, beyond which the zn composition increased abruptly to ZnTe. The abrupt transition of Zn composition was suppressed by increasing the VI/II ratio. The growth mechanism of CdZnTe layers was studied based on the observed growth characteristics of CdTe and ZnTe. A higher desorption rate from the growth surface for Zn species than for Cd species, and a higher rate of CdTe formation than ZnTe formation are believed to cause the observed growth characteristics. CdZnTe layers with high crystal quality were grown in a wide range of Zn compositions. The full-width at half-maximum values for x-ray double-crystal rocking-curve measurements were lower than 320 arc-sec for x < 0.3 and x > 0.75.« less
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  • In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}Sb epitaxial layers and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) device structures have been grown on GaSb and GaAs substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Control of the n-type doping up to 1{times}10{sup 18}cm{sup {minus}3} was achieved using diethyltellurium (DETe) as the dopant source. A Hall mobility of greater than 8000cm{sup 2}/Vs at 77K was obtained for a 3{times}10{sup 17}cm{sup {minus}3} doped In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}Sb layer grown on high-resistivity GaSb substrate. The In{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}Sb epilayers directly grown on GaSb substrates were tilted with respect to the substrates, with the amount of tilt increasing with the layer thickness. Transmission electron microscopymore » (TEM) studies of the layers showed the presence of dislocation networks across the epilayers parallel to the interface at different distances from the interface, but the layers above this dislocation network were virtually free of dislocations. A strong correlation between epilayer tilt and TPV device properties was found, with layers having more tilt providing better devices. The results suggest that the dislocations moving parallel to the interface cause lattice tilt, and control of this layer tilt may enable the fabrication of better quality device structures. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}« less