skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Single crystal CVD diamond membranes for betavoltaic cells

Abstract

A single crystal diamond large area thin membrane was assembled as a p-doped/Intrinsic/Metal (PIM) structure and used in a betavoltaic configuration. When tested with a 20 keV electron beam from a high resolution scanning electron microscope, we measured an open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 1.85 V, a charge collection efficiency (CCE) of 98%, a fill-factor of 80%, and a total conversion efficiency of 9.4%. These parameters are inherently linked to the diamond membrane PIM structure that allows full device depletion even at 0 V and are among the highest reported up to now for any other material tested for betavoltaic devices. It enables to drive a high short-circuit current I{sub sc} up to 7.12 μA, to reach a maximum power P{sub max} of 10.48 μW, a remarkable value demonstrating the high-benefit of diamond for the realization of long-life radioisotope based micro-batteries.

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. CEA, LIST, Diamond Sensors Laboratory, 91-191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22590816
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 108; Journal Issue: 25; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; BETAVOLTAIC CELLS; CHARGE COLLECTION; CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; DIAMONDS; DOPED MATERIALS; EFFICIENCY; ELECTRIC POTENTIAL; ELECTRICAL FAULTS; ELECTRON BEAMS; ELECTRON SCANNING; EQUIPMENT; FILL FACTORS; KEV RANGE 10-100; MEMBRANES; MONOCRYSTALS; RADIOISOTOPES; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Delfaure, C., Pomorski, M., E-mail: michal.pomorski@cea.fr, Sanoit, J. de, Bergonzo, P., and Saada, S. Single crystal CVD diamond membranes for betavoltaic cells. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4954013.
Delfaure, C., Pomorski, M., E-mail: michal.pomorski@cea.fr, Sanoit, J. de, Bergonzo, P., & Saada, S. Single crystal CVD diamond membranes for betavoltaic cells. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4954013.
Delfaure, C., Pomorski, M., E-mail: michal.pomorski@cea.fr, Sanoit, J. de, Bergonzo, P., and Saada, S. 2016. "Single crystal CVD diamond membranes for betavoltaic cells". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4954013.
@article{osti_22590816,
title = {Single crystal CVD diamond membranes for betavoltaic cells},
author = {Delfaure, C. and Pomorski, M., E-mail: michal.pomorski@cea.fr and Sanoit, J. de and Bergonzo, P. and Saada, S.},
abstractNote = {A single crystal diamond large area thin membrane was assembled as a p-doped/Intrinsic/Metal (PIM) structure and used in a betavoltaic configuration. When tested with a 20 keV electron beam from a high resolution scanning electron microscope, we measured an open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 1.85 V, a charge collection efficiency (CCE) of 98%, a fill-factor of 80%, and a total conversion efficiency of 9.4%. These parameters are inherently linked to the diamond membrane PIM structure that allows full device depletion even at 0 V and are among the highest reported up to now for any other material tested for betavoltaic devices. It enables to drive a high short-circuit current I{sub sc} up to 7.12 μA, to reach a maximum power P{sub max} of 10.48 μW, a remarkable value demonstrating the high-benefit of diamond for the realization of long-life radioisotope based micro-batteries.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4954013},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 25,
volume = 108,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 6
}
  • The fabrication of sub-micron pores in single crystal diamond membranes, which span the entirety of the membrane, is described for the first time, and the translocation properties of polymeric particles through the pore investigated. The pores are produced using a combination of laser micromachining to form the membrane and electron beam induced etching to form the pore. Single crystal diamond as the membrane material, has the advantages of chemical stability and durability, does not hydrate and swell, has outstanding electrical properties that facilitate fast, low noise current-time measurements and is optically transparent for combined optical-conductance sensing. The resulting pores aremore » characterized individually using both conductance measurements, employing a microcapillary electrochemical setup, and electron microscopy. Proof-of-concept experiments to sense charged polystyrene particles as they are electrophoretically driven through a single diamond pore are performed, and the impact of this new pore material on particle translocation is explored. As a result, these findings reveal the potential of diamond as a platform for pore-based sensing technologies and pave the way for the fabrication of single nanopores which span the entirety of a diamond membrane.« less
  • Silicon p-i-n diodes are studied in a scanning electron microscope under conditions simulating the β-radiation from a radioactive Ni{sup 63} source with an activity of 10 mCi/cm{sup 2}. The attainable parameters of β-voltaic cells with a source of this kind and a silicon-based converter of β-particle energy to electric current are estimated. It is shown that the power of elements of this kind can reach values of ∼10 nW/cm{sup 2} even for a cell with an area of one centimeter, which is rather close to the calculated value.
  • The results of studies of single-crystal diamond layers with orientation (100) grown on substrates of IIa-type natural diamond by chemical-vapor deposition and of semiconductor diamond obtained subsequently by doping by implantation of boron ions are reported. Optimal conditions of postimplantation annealing of diamond that provide the hole mobility of 1150 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} (the highest mobility obtained so far for semiconductor diamond after ion implantation) are given.
  • Early stage nucleation morphologies of spatially localized nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) micro-anvils grown on (100)-oriented single crystal diamond (SCD) anvil surfaces were analyzed and investigated for applications in high pressure studies on materials. NCD was grown on SCD using Microwave Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (MPCVD) for brief time intervals ranging from 1-15 minutes. Early stage film morphologies were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy and were compared to films grown for several hours. Rapid nucleation and growth of NCD on SCD is demonstrated without any pre-growth seeding of the substrate surface. As grown NCD diamond micro-anvils on SCDmore » were used to generate static pressure of 0.5 Terapascal (TPa) on a tungsten sample as measured by synchrotron x-ray diffraction in a diamond anvil cell. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis after decompression from ultrahigh pressures showed that the detachment of the NCD stage occurred in the bulk of the SCD and not at the interface, suggesting significant adhesive bond strength between nanocrystalline and single crystal diamond.« less