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Title: Wide range local resistance imaging on fragile materials by conducting probe atomic force microscopy in intermittent contact mode

Abstract

An imaging technique associating a slowly intermittent contact mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a home-made multi-purpose resistance sensing device is presented. It aims at extending the widespread resistance measurements classically operated in contact mode AFM to broaden their application fields to soft materials (molecular electronics, biology) and fragile or weakly anchored nano-objects, for which nanoscale electrical characterization is highly demanded and often proves to be a challenging task in contact mode. Compared with the state of the art concerning less aggressive solutions for AFM electrical imaging, our technique brings a significantly wider range of resistance measurement (over 10 decades) without any manual switching, which is a major advantage for the characterization of materials with large on-sample resistance variations. After describing the basics of the set-up, we report on preliminary investigations focused on academic samples of self-assembled monolayers with various thicknesses as a demonstrator of the imaging capabilities of our instrument, from qualitative and semi-quantitative viewpoints. Then two application examples are presented, regarding an organic photovoltaic thin film and an array of individual vertical carbon nanotubes. Both attest the relevance of the technique for the control and optimization of technological processes.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2]; ; ; ;  [1];  [3];  [2]; ; ;  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];
  1. Laboratoire de Génie électrique et électronique de Paris (GeePs), UMR 8507 CNRS-CentraleSupélec, Paris-Sud and UPMC Universities, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
  2. (France)
  3. Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS-Thales UMR 137, 1 avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France)
  4. Molecular Science Institute, University of Valencia, 46980 Paterna (Spain)
  5. Lab. Physique des Interfaces et Couches minces (PICM), UMR 7647 CNRS-École polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France)
  6. (LICSEN), NIMBE UMR 3685 CNRS-CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22590801
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 108; Journal Issue: 24; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY; CARBON NANOTUBES; EQUIPMENT; OPTIMIZATION; PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT; PROBES; THICKNESS; THIN FILMS

Citation Formats

Vecchiola, Aymeric, Concept Scientific Instruments, ZA de Courtaboeuf, 2 rue de la Terre de Feu, 91940 Les Ulis, Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS-Thales UMR 137, 1 avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau, Chrétien, Pascal, Schneegans, Olivier, Mencaraglia, Denis, Houzé, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.houze@geeps.centralesupelec.fr, Delprat, Sophie, UPMC, Université Paris 06, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, Bouzehouane, Karim, Seneor, Pierre, Mattana, Richard, Tatay, Sergio, Geffroy, Bernard, Lab. d'Innovation en Chimie des Surfaces et Nanosciences, and and others. Wide range local resistance imaging on fragile materials by conducting probe atomic force microscopy in intermittent contact mode. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4953870.
Vecchiola, Aymeric, Concept Scientific Instruments, ZA de Courtaboeuf, 2 rue de la Terre de Feu, 91940 Les Ulis, Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS-Thales UMR 137, 1 avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau, Chrétien, Pascal, Schneegans, Olivier, Mencaraglia, Denis, Houzé, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.houze@geeps.centralesupelec.fr, Delprat, Sophie, UPMC, Université Paris 06, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, Bouzehouane, Karim, Seneor, Pierre, Mattana, Richard, Tatay, Sergio, Geffroy, Bernard, Lab. d'Innovation en Chimie des Surfaces et Nanosciences, & and others. Wide range local resistance imaging on fragile materials by conducting probe atomic force microscopy in intermittent contact mode. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4953870.
Vecchiola, Aymeric, Concept Scientific Instruments, ZA de Courtaboeuf, 2 rue de la Terre de Feu, 91940 Les Ulis, Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS-Thales UMR 137, 1 avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau, Chrétien, Pascal, Schneegans, Olivier, Mencaraglia, Denis, Houzé, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.houze@geeps.centralesupelec.fr, Delprat, Sophie, UPMC, Université Paris 06, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris, Bouzehouane, Karim, Seneor, Pierre, Mattana, Richard, Tatay, Sergio, Geffroy, Bernard, Lab. d'Innovation en Chimie des Surfaces et Nanosciences, and and others. Mon . "Wide range local resistance imaging on fragile materials by conducting probe atomic force microscopy in intermittent contact mode". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4953870.
@article{osti_22590801,
title = {Wide range local resistance imaging on fragile materials by conducting probe atomic force microscopy in intermittent contact mode},
author = {Vecchiola, Aymeric and Concept Scientific Instruments, ZA de Courtaboeuf, 2 rue de la Terre de Feu, 91940 Les Ulis and Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS-Thales UMR 137, 1 avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau and Chrétien, Pascal and Schneegans, Olivier and Mencaraglia, Denis and Houzé, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.houze@geeps.centralesupelec.fr and Delprat, Sophie and UPMC, Université Paris 06, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris and Bouzehouane, Karim and Seneor, Pierre and Mattana, Richard and Tatay, Sergio and Geffroy, Bernard and Lab. d'Innovation en Chimie des Surfaces et Nanosciences and and others},
abstractNote = {An imaging technique associating a slowly intermittent contact mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a home-made multi-purpose resistance sensing device is presented. It aims at extending the widespread resistance measurements classically operated in contact mode AFM to broaden their application fields to soft materials (molecular electronics, biology) and fragile or weakly anchored nano-objects, for which nanoscale electrical characterization is highly demanded and often proves to be a challenging task in contact mode. Compared with the state of the art concerning less aggressive solutions for AFM electrical imaging, our technique brings a significantly wider range of resistance measurement (over 10 decades) without any manual switching, which is a major advantage for the characterization of materials with large on-sample resistance variations. After describing the basics of the set-up, we report on preliminary investigations focused on academic samples of self-assembled monolayers with various thicknesses as a demonstrator of the imaging capabilities of our instrument, from qualitative and semi-quantitative viewpoints. Then two application examples are presented, regarding an organic photovoltaic thin film and an array of individual vertical carbon nanotubes. Both attest the relevance of the technique for the control and optimization of technological processes.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4953870},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 24,
volume = 108,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jun 13 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Mon Jun 13 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}
  • Force-based scanning probe microscopies have emerged as a mainstay for probing structural and mechanical properties of materials on the nanometer and molecular scales. Despite tremendous progress achieved to date, the cantilever dynamics in single frequency scanning probe microscopies (SPM) is undefined due to having only two output variables. Here we demonstrate on diamond nanoparticles with different functionalization layers that the use of broad band detection by multiple frequency SPM allows complete information on tip-surface interactions in intermittent contact SPM to be acquired. The obtained data allows sub-3nm resolution even in ambient environment. By tuning the strength of tip-surface interaction, themore » information on surface state can be obtained.« less
  • In this paper, an adaptive contact-mode imaging approach is proposed to replace the traditional contact-mode imaging by addressing the major concerns in both the speed and the force exerted to the sample. The speed of the traditional contact-mode imaging is largely limited by the need to maintain precision tracking of the sample topography over the entire imaged sample surface, while large image distortion and excessive probe-sample interaction force occur during high-speed imaging. In this work, first, the image distortion caused by the topography tracking error is accounted for in the topography quantification. Second, the quantified sample topography is utilized inmore » a gradient-based optimization method to adjust the cantilever deflection set-point for each scanline closely around the minimal level needed for maintaining stable probe-sample contact, and a data-driven iterative feedforward control that utilizes a prediction of the next-line topography is integrated to the topography feeedback loop to enhance the sample topography tracking. The proposed approach is demonstrated and evaluated through imaging a calibration sample of square pitches at both high speeds (e.g., scan rate of 75 Hz and 130 Hz) and large sizes (e.g., scan size of 30 μm and 80 μm). The experimental results show that compared to the traditional constant-force contact-mode imaging, the imaging speed can be increased by over 30 folds (with the scanning speed at 13 mm/s), and the probe-sample interaction force can be reduced by more than 15% while maintaining the same image quality.« less
  • Two contact resonance frequencies atomic force acoustic microscopy imaging technique has been used to evaluate local indentation modulus of a diamondlike carbon film deposited on a molybdenum foil by laser ablation from glassy carbon target. Acoustic images were obtained by measuring both first and second contact resonance frequency at each point of the scanned area, and then numerically evaluating local contact stiffness and reconstructing an indentation modulus bidimensional pattern. The wide difference of the indentation modulus values allows to detect the presence of residual glassy carbon agglomerates in the diamondlike carbon film.