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Title: The appearance of Ti{sup 3+} states in solution-processed TiO{sub x} buffer layers in inverted organic photovoltaics

Abstract

We study the low-temperature solution processed TiO{sub x} films and device structures using core level and valence X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electronic structure calculations. We are able to correlate the fraction of Ti{sup 3+} present as obtained from Ti 2p core level XPS with the intensity of the defect states that appear within the band gap as observed with our valence XPS. Constructing an operating inverted organic photovoltaic (OPV) using the TiO{sub x} film as an electron selective contact may increase the fraction of Ti{sup 3+} present. We provide evidence that the number of charge carriers in TiO{sub x} can be significantly varied and this might influence the performance of inverted OPVs.

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [1]; ;  [4];  [5]
  1. M. N. Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences-Ural Branch, S. Kovalevskoi Str. 18, 620990 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)
  2. (Russian Federation)
  3. Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM), Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, 199 Ren'ai Road, Suzhou, 215123, Jiangsu (China)
  4. Molecular Electronics and Photonics Research Unit, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Cyprus University of Technology, Kitiou Kiprianou Str. 45, 3603 Limassol (Cyprus)
  5. Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22590566
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 109; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; BUFFERS; CHARGE CARRIERS; ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE; FILMS; LAYERS; MATHEMATICAL SOLUTIONS; PERFORMANCE; PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT; TITANIUM IONS; TITANIUM OXIDES; VALENCE; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Zhidkov, Ivan S., Kurmaev, Ernst Z., Kukharenko, Andrey I., Korotin, Danila M., Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg, McLeod, John A., E-mail: jmcleod@suda.edu.cn, Korotin, Michael A., Savva, Achilleas, Choulis, Stelios A., and Cholakh, Seif O. The appearance of Ti{sup 3+} states in solution-processed TiO{sub x} buffer layers in inverted organic photovoltaics. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4958892.
Zhidkov, Ivan S., Kurmaev, Ernst Z., Kukharenko, Andrey I., Korotin, Danila M., Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg, McLeod, John A., E-mail: jmcleod@suda.edu.cn, Korotin, Michael A., Savva, Achilleas, Choulis, Stelios A., & Cholakh, Seif O. The appearance of Ti{sup 3+} states in solution-processed TiO{sub x} buffer layers in inverted organic photovoltaics. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4958892.
Zhidkov, Ivan S., Kurmaev, Ernst Z., Kukharenko, Andrey I., Korotin, Danila M., Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg, McLeod, John A., E-mail: jmcleod@suda.edu.cn, Korotin, Michael A., Savva, Achilleas, Choulis, Stelios A., and Cholakh, Seif O. Mon . "The appearance of Ti{sup 3+} states in solution-processed TiO{sub x} buffer layers in inverted organic photovoltaics". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4958892.
@article{osti_22590566,
title = {The appearance of Ti{sup 3+} states in solution-processed TiO{sub x} buffer layers in inverted organic photovoltaics},
author = {Zhidkov, Ivan S. and Kurmaev, Ernst Z. and Kukharenko, Andrey I. and Korotin, Danila M. and Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Mira Str. 19, 620002 Yekaterinburg and McLeod, John A., E-mail: jmcleod@suda.edu.cn and Korotin, Michael A. and Savva, Achilleas and Choulis, Stelios A. and Cholakh, Seif O.},
abstractNote = {We study the low-temperature solution processed TiO{sub x} films and device structures using core level and valence X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electronic structure calculations. We are able to correlate the fraction of Ti{sup 3+} present as obtained from Ti 2p core level XPS with the intensity of the defect states that appear within the band gap as observed with our valence XPS. Constructing an operating inverted organic photovoltaic (OPV) using the TiO{sub x} film as an electron selective contact may increase the fraction of Ti{sup 3+} present. We provide evidence that the number of charge carriers in TiO{sub x} can be significantly varied and this might influence the performance of inverted OPVs.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4958892},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 2,
volume = 109,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jul 11 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Mon Jul 11 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}