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Title: P-doped organic semiconductor: Potential replacement for PEDOT:PSS in organic photodetectors

Abstract

In this work, we present an alternative to the use of PEDOT:PSS as hole transport and electron blocking layers in organic photodetectors processed by solution. As Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is known to be sensitive to humidity, oxygen, and UV, removing this layer is essential for lifetime improvements. As a first step to achieving this goal, we need to find an alternative layer that fulfills the same role in order to obtain a working diode with similar or better performance. As a replacement, a layer of poly[(4,8-bis-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-benzo(1,2-b:4,5-b′)dithiophene)-2, 6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexanoyl)-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-)-2-6-diyl)] (PBDTTT-c) p-doped with the dopant tris-[1-(trifluoroethanoyl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)ethane-1,2-dithiolene] (Mo(tfd-COCF{sub 3}){sub 3}) is used. This p-doped layer effectively lowers the hole injection barrier, and the low electron affinity of the polymer prevents the injection of electrons into the active layer. We show similar device performance under light and the improvements of detection performance with the doped layer in comparison with PEDOT:PSS, leading to a detectivity of 1.9 × 10{sup 13} cm (Hz){sup 1/2} (W){sup −1}, competitive with silicon diodes used in imaging applications. Moreover, contrary to PEDOT:PSS, no localization of the p-doped layer is needed, leading to a diode active area defined by the patterned electrodes.

Authors:
;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. University of Grenoble Alpes, CEA-LITEN, Grenoble 38000 (France)
  2. IEMN, CNRS, University of Lille, Villeneuve d'Ascq 59652 (France)
  3. Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22590515
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 109; Journal Issue: 7; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; AFFINITY; CHANNELING; DEPLETION LAYER; DOPED MATERIALS; ELECTRODES; EQUIPMENT; HUMIDITY; ORGANIC SEMICONDUCTORS; PERFORMANCE; PHOTODETECTORS; POLYMERS; SILICON DIODES

Citation Formats

Herrbach, J., Revaux, A., E-mail: amelie.revaux@cea.fr, Vuillaume, D., and Kahn, A. P-doped organic semiconductor: Potential replacement for PEDOT:PSS in organic photodetectors. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4961444.
Herrbach, J., Revaux, A., E-mail: amelie.revaux@cea.fr, Vuillaume, D., & Kahn, A. P-doped organic semiconductor: Potential replacement for PEDOT:PSS in organic photodetectors. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4961444.
Herrbach, J., Revaux, A., E-mail: amelie.revaux@cea.fr, Vuillaume, D., and Kahn, A. 2016. "P-doped organic semiconductor: Potential replacement for PEDOT:PSS in organic photodetectors". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4961444.
@article{osti_22590515,
title = {P-doped organic semiconductor: Potential replacement for PEDOT:PSS in organic photodetectors},
author = {Herrbach, J. and Revaux, A., E-mail: amelie.revaux@cea.fr and Vuillaume, D. and Kahn, A.},
abstractNote = {In this work, we present an alternative to the use of PEDOT:PSS as hole transport and electron blocking layers in organic photodetectors processed by solution. As Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is known to be sensitive to humidity, oxygen, and UV, removing this layer is essential for lifetime improvements. As a first step to achieving this goal, we need to find an alternative layer that fulfills the same role in order to obtain a working diode with similar or better performance. As a replacement, a layer of poly[(4,8-bis-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-benzo(1,2-b:4,5-b′)dithiophene)-2, 6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexanoyl)-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene-)-2-6-diyl)] (PBDTTT-c) p-doped with the dopant tris-[1-(trifluoroethanoyl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)ethane-1,2-dithiolene] (Mo(tfd-COCF{sub 3}){sub 3}) is used. This p-doped layer effectively lowers the hole injection barrier, and the low electron affinity of the polymer prevents the injection of electrons into the active layer. We show similar device performance under light and the improvements of detection performance with the doped layer in comparison with PEDOT:PSS, leading to a detectivity of 1.9 × 10{sup 13} cm (Hz){sup 1/2} (W){sup −1}, competitive with silicon diodes used in imaging applications. Moreover, contrary to PEDOT:PSS, no localization of the p-doped layer is needed, leading to a diode active area defined by the patterned electrodes.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4961444},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 7,
volume = 109,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}
  • Thin ion-beam (IB)-spurted dimethyl sulfate/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (DMS/PEDOT:PSS) layers with improved electro-optic performance are presented for aligning liquid crystals. IB spurting is effective for enhancing the conductivity of such layers, as well as the anchoring energy of the liquid crystals sandwiched between them. Compared with a commercial twisted-nematic cell assembled with polyimide alignment layers, the same cell assembled with 3.0-keV IB-spurted DMS/PEDOT:PSS alignment layers shows a 38% faster switching and a 93% lower residual direct current. The improved electro-optic performance here is likely due to the enhanced electric field effect and the charge-releasing ability of thin IB-spurted DMS/PEDOT:PSS layers.
  • An organic Write-Once-Read-Many (WORM) device based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) as the active layer was fabricated with an inverted architecture. Insertion of an ultrathin layer of poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) between the bottom electrode and the PEDOT:PSS resulted in a systematic and substantial decrease in turn-on voltage, from 7.0 V to less than 1.0 V. An optimal thickness of the PMMA layer was found to yield the lowest consistent turn-on voltage of ~0.8 V, with 0.5 V being the lowest value of all fabricated devices. The switching mechanism was attributed to filamentary doping of the PEDOT:PSS. Insertion of the PMMA acted tomore » protect the underlying ZnO from being etched by the acidic PEDOT:PSS as well as to improve its wetting properties. Moreover, devices were demonstrated on both ITO and aluminum bottom electrodes, with aluminum yielding the highest ON/OFF ratios in the study. Owing to their inverted architecture, the devices demonstrated good stability, and the retention time of the ON-state was determined to be greater than twenty months while stored in air for devices with ITO bottom electrodes. Blade-coating was demonstrated as a viable processing technique for applications requiring rapid or large-area manufacturing in addition to deposition via spin-coating.« less
  • In this paper we report on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)-free spray coated organic photodiodes with an active layer consisting of a poly(3-hexylthiophen) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend and patterned poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrodes. External quantum efficiency and current voltage characteristics under illuminated and dark conditions as well as cut-off frequencies for devices with varying active and hole conducting layer thicknesses were measured in order to characterize the fabricated devices. 60% quantum efficiency as well as nearly four orders of magnitude on-off ratios have been achieved. Those values are comparable with standard ITO devices.
  • Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are well suited for energy saving lighting applications, especially when thinking about highly flexible and large area devices. In order to avoid the degradation of the organic components by water and oxygen, OLEDs need to be encapsulated, e.g., by a thin sheet of glass. As the device is then no longer flexible, alternative coatings are required. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a very promising approach in this respect. The authors studied OLEDs that were encapsulated by 100 nm Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} deposited by ALD. The authors show that this coating effectively protects the active surface areamore » of the OLEDs from humidity. However, secondary degradation processes still occur at sharp edges of the OLED stack where the extremely thin encapsulation layer does not provide perfect coverage. Particularly, the swelling of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) mixed with poly(styrenesulfonate), which is a popular choice for the planarization of the bottom electrode and at the same time acts as a hole injection layer, affects the effectiveness of the encapsulation layer.« less