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Title: The separated electric and magnetic field responses of luminescent bacteria exposed to pulsed microwave irradiation

Abstract

Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are ubiquitous in the digital world we inhabit, with microwave and millimetre wave sources of non-ionizing radiation employed extensively in electronics and communications, e.g., in mobile phones and Wi-Fi. Indeed, the advent of 5G systems and the “internet of things” is likely to lead to massive densification of wireless networks. Whilst the thermal effects of EMFs on biological systems are well characterised, their putative non-thermal effects remain a controversial subject. Here, we use the bioluminescent marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, to monitor the effects of pulsed microwave electromagnetic fields, of nominal frequency 2.5 GHz, on light emission. Separated electric and magnetic field effects were investigated using a resonant microwave cavity, within which the maxima of each field are separated. For pulsed electric field exposure, the bacteria gave reproducible responses and recovery in light emission. At the lowest pulsed duty cycle (1.25%) and after short durations (100 ms) of exposure to the electric field at power levels of 4.5 W rms, we observed an initial stimulation of bioluminescence, whereas successive microwave pulses became inhibitory. Much of this behaviour is due to thermal effects, as the bacterial light output is very sensitive to the local temperature. Conversely, magnetic field exposure gave nomore » measurable short-term responses even at the highest power levels of 32 W rms. Thus, we were able to detect, de-convolute, and evaluate independently the effects of separated electric and magnetic fields on exposure of a luminescent biological system to microwave irradiation.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ; ; ;  [1];  [3]
  1. School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Queen's Buildings, Newport Road, Cardiff, CF24 3AA Wales (United Kingdom)
  2. (United Kingdom)
  3. School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Main Building, Cathays Park, Cardiff, CF10 3AT Wales (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22590472
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 109; Journal Issue: 9; Other Information: (c) 2016 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; BACTERIA; BIOLUMINESCENCE; ELECTRIC FIELDS; ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS; ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE; GHZ RANGE; IONIZING RADIATIONS; IRRADIATION; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MICROWAVE RADIATION; MOBILE PHONES; PULSES; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE

Citation Formats

Williams, Catrin F., E-mail: williamscf@cardiff.ac.uk, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Main Building, Cathays Park, Cardiff, CF10 3AT Wales, Geroni, Gilles M., Pirog, Antoine, Lees, Jonathan, Porch, Adrian, and Lloyd, David. The separated electric and magnetic field responses of luminescent bacteria exposed to pulsed microwave irradiation. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4961970.
Williams, Catrin F., E-mail: williamscf@cardiff.ac.uk, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Main Building, Cathays Park, Cardiff, CF10 3AT Wales, Geroni, Gilles M., Pirog, Antoine, Lees, Jonathan, Porch, Adrian, & Lloyd, David. The separated electric and magnetic field responses of luminescent bacteria exposed to pulsed microwave irradiation. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4961970.
Williams, Catrin F., E-mail: williamscf@cardiff.ac.uk, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Main Building, Cathays Park, Cardiff, CF10 3AT Wales, Geroni, Gilles M., Pirog, Antoine, Lees, Jonathan, Porch, Adrian, and Lloyd, David. 2016. "The separated electric and magnetic field responses of luminescent bacteria exposed to pulsed microwave irradiation". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4961970.
@article{osti_22590472,
title = {The separated electric and magnetic field responses of luminescent bacteria exposed to pulsed microwave irradiation},
author = {Williams, Catrin F., E-mail: williamscf@cardiff.ac.uk and School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Main Building, Cathays Park, Cardiff, CF10 3AT Wales and Geroni, Gilles M. and Pirog, Antoine and Lees, Jonathan and Porch, Adrian and Lloyd, David},
abstractNote = {Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are ubiquitous in the digital world we inhabit, with microwave and millimetre wave sources of non-ionizing radiation employed extensively in electronics and communications, e.g., in mobile phones and Wi-Fi. Indeed, the advent of 5G systems and the “internet of things” is likely to lead to massive densification of wireless networks. Whilst the thermal effects of EMFs on biological systems are well characterised, their putative non-thermal effects remain a controversial subject. Here, we use the bioluminescent marine bacterium, Vibrio fischeri, to monitor the effects of pulsed microwave electromagnetic fields, of nominal frequency 2.5 GHz, on light emission. Separated electric and magnetic field effects were investigated using a resonant microwave cavity, within which the maxima of each field are separated. For pulsed electric field exposure, the bacteria gave reproducible responses and recovery in light emission. At the lowest pulsed duty cycle (1.25%) and after short durations (100 ms) of exposure to the electric field at power levels of 4.5 W rms, we observed an initial stimulation of bioluminescence, whereas successive microwave pulses became inhibitory. Much of this behaviour is due to thermal effects, as the bacterial light output is very sensitive to the local temperature. Conversely, magnetic field exposure gave no measurable short-term responses even at the highest power levels of 32 W rms. Thus, we were able to detect, de-convolute, and evaluate independently the effects of separated electric and magnetic fields on exposure of a luminescent biological system to microwave irradiation.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4961970},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 9,
volume = 109,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}