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Title: In-situ laser ultrasonic measurement of the hcp to bcc transformation in commercially pure titanium

Abstract

Using a novel in-situ laser ultrasonic technique, the evolution of longitudinal velocity was used to measure the α − β transformation during cyclic heating and cooling in commercially pure titanium. In order to quantify the transformation kinetics, it is shown that changes in texture can not be ignored. This is particularly important in the case of titanium where significant grain growth occurs in the β-phase leading to the ultrasonic wave sampling a decreasing number of grains on each thermal treatment cycle. Electron backscatter diffraction measurements made postmortem in the region where the ultrasonic pulse traveled were used to obtain an estimate of such local texture and grain size changes. An analysis technique for including the anisotropy of wave velocity depending on local texture is presented and shown to give self consistent results for the transformation kinetics. - Highlights: • Laser ultrasound and EBSD interpret the hcp/bcc phase transformation in cp-Ti. • Grain growth and texture produced variation in velocity during similar treatments. • Texture was deconvoluted from phase addition to obtain transformation kinetics.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22587165
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Materials Characterization; Journal Volume: 117; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2016 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; ANISOTROPY; BACKSCATTERING; BCC LATTICES; COOLING; ELECTRON DIFFRACTION; GRAIN GROWTH; GRAIN SIZE; HCP LATTICES; HEAT TREATMENTS; HEATING; LASERS; PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS; TEXTURE; TITANIUM; ULTRASONIC WAVES

Citation Formats

Shinbine, A., E-mail: alyssa.shinbine@gmail.com, Garcin, T., and Sinclair, C. In-situ laser ultrasonic measurement of the hcp to bcc transformation in commercially pure titanium. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2016.04.018.
Shinbine, A., E-mail: alyssa.shinbine@gmail.com, Garcin, T., & Sinclair, C. In-situ laser ultrasonic measurement of the hcp to bcc transformation in commercially pure titanium. United States. doi:10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2016.04.018.
Shinbine, A., E-mail: alyssa.shinbine@gmail.com, Garcin, T., and Sinclair, C. 2016. "In-situ laser ultrasonic measurement of the hcp to bcc transformation in commercially pure titanium". United States. doi:10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2016.04.018.
@article{osti_22587165,
title = {In-situ laser ultrasonic measurement of the hcp to bcc transformation in commercially pure titanium},
author = {Shinbine, A., E-mail: alyssa.shinbine@gmail.com and Garcin, T. and Sinclair, C.},
abstractNote = {Using a novel in-situ laser ultrasonic technique, the evolution of longitudinal velocity was used to measure the α − β transformation during cyclic heating and cooling in commercially pure titanium. In order to quantify the transformation kinetics, it is shown that changes in texture can not be ignored. This is particularly important in the case of titanium where significant grain growth occurs in the β-phase leading to the ultrasonic wave sampling a decreasing number of grains on each thermal treatment cycle. Electron backscatter diffraction measurements made postmortem in the region where the ultrasonic pulse traveled were used to obtain an estimate of such local texture and grain size changes. An analysis technique for including the anisotropy of wave velocity depending on local texture is presented and shown to give self consistent results for the transformation kinetics. - Highlights: • Laser ultrasound and EBSD interpret the hcp/bcc phase transformation in cp-Ti. • Grain growth and texture produced variation in velocity during similar treatments. • Texture was deconvoluted from phase addition to obtain transformation kinetics.},
doi = {10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2016.04.018},
journal = {Materials Characterization},
number = ,
volume = 117,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}
  • Spatially resolved X-ray diffraction (SRXRD) is used to map the {alpha} {r_arrow} {beta} {r_arrow} {alpha} phase transformation in the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of commercially pure titanium gas tungsten arc welds. In situ SRXRD experiments were conducted using a 180-{micro}m-diameter X-ray beam at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) (Stanford, CA) to probe the phases present in the HAZ of a 1.9 kW weld moving at 1.1 mm/s. Results of sequential linear X-ray diffraction scans made perpendicular to the weld direction were combined to construct a phase transformation map around the liquid weld pool. This map identifies six HAZ microstructural regionsmore » between the liquid weld pool and the base metal: (1) {alpha}-Ti that is undergoing annealing and recrystallization; (2) completely recrystallized {alpha}-Ti; (3) partially transformed {alpha}-Ti, where {alpha}-Ti and {beta}-Ti coexist; (4) single-phase {beta}-Ti; (5) back-transformed {alpha}Ti; and (6) recrystallized {alpha}-Ti plus back-transformed {alpha}-Ti. Although the microstructure consisted predominantly of {alpha}-Ti, both prior to and after the weld, the crystallographically textured starting material was altered during welding to produce different {alpha}-Ti textures within the resulting HAZ. Based on the travel speed of the weld, the {alpha} {r_arrow} {beta} transformation was measured to take 1.83 seconds during heat, while the {beta} {r_arrow} {alpha} transformation was measured to take 0.91 seconds during cooling. The {alpha} {r_arrow} {beta} transformation was characterized to be dominated by long-range diffusion growth on the leading (heating) side of the weld, while the {beta} {r_arrow} {alpha} transformation was characterized to be predominantly massive on the trailing (cooling) side of the weld, with a massive growth rate on the order of 100 {micro}m/s.« less
  • Hexagonal close packed (h.c.p.) metals like [alpha]-titanium and its alloys are inherently anisotropic in physical and mechanical properties which are induced by the crystallographic texture. So the texture control in these metals has been one of the most serious problems. Although several investigations have been done on the rolling and annealing textures in titanium sheets and a few on the texture transformation in cubic metals, very little has been reported of the influence of phase transformation on the texture formation in titanium. The present work was aimed at providing some information on this subject.
  • Surface nitriding of commercially pure (CP) titanium was carried out using high power CO{sub 2} laser at pure nitrogen and dilute nitrogen (N{sub 2} + Ar) environment. The hardness, microstructure, and melt pool configuration of the laser melted titanium in helium and argon atmosphere was compared with laser melting at pure and dilute nitrogen environment. The hardness of the nitrided layer was of the order of 1000 to 1600 HV. The hardness of the laser melted titanium in the argon and helium atmosphere was 500 to 1000 HV. Using x-ray analysis of the formation of TiN and Ti{sub 2}N phasemore » was identified in the laser nitrided titanium. The presence of nitrogen in the nitrided zone was confirmed using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis. The microstructures revealed densely populated dendrites in the sample nitrided at 100% N{sub 2} environment and thinly populated dendrites in dilute environment. The crack intensity was large in the nitrided sample at pure nitrogen, and few cracks were observed in the 50% N{sub 2} + 50% Ar environment.« less
  • Spatially Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (SRXRD) is used to map the {alpha}{r_arrow}{beta}{r_arrow}{alpha} phase transformation in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of commercially pure titanium gas tungsten arc welds. In-situ SRXRD experiments were conducted on arc welds using a 200 pm diameter x-ray beam at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). A map was created which identifies six HAZ microstructural regions that exist between the liquid weld pool and the base metal during welding. The first region is single phase {beta}-Ti that forms in a 2- to 3-mm band adjacent to the liquid weld pool. The second region is back transformed {alpha}-Ti thatmore » forms behind the portion of the HAZ where {beta}-Ti was once present at higher temperatures. The third region is completely recrystallized {alpha}-Ti that forms in a 2- to 3-mm band surrounding the single phase {beta}-Ti region. Recrystallized {alpha}-Ti was observed by itself and also with varying amounts of {beta}-Ti. The fourth region of the weld is the partially transformed zone where {alpha}-Ti and {beta}-Ti coexist during welding. The fifth region is directly behind the partially transformed zone and consists of a mixture of recrystallized and back transformed {alpha}-Ti The sixth region is farthest from the weld pool and consists of {alpha}-Ti that is undergoing annealing and recrystallization. Annealing of the base metal was observed to some degree in all of the SRXRD patterns, showing that annealing exceeded 13 mm from the centerline of the weld. Although the microstructure consisted predominantly of {alpha}-Ti, both prior to the weld and after the weld, the (002) texture of the starting material was altered during welding to produce a predominantly (101) texture within the resulting HAZ.« less