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Title: Gas tungsten arc welding and friction stir welding of ultrafine grained AISI 304L stainless steel: Microstructural and mechanical behavior characterization

Abstract

In the present study, an ultrafine grained (UFG) AISI 304L stainless steel with the average grain size of 650 nm was successfully welded by both gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and friction stir welding (FSW). GTAW was applied without any filler metal. FSW was also performed at a constant rotational speed of 630 rpm and different welding speeds from 20 to 80 mm/min. Microstructural characterization was carried out by High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM) with Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Nanoindentation, microhardness measurements and tensile tests were also performed to study the mechanical properties of the base metal and weldments. The results showed that the solidification mode in the GTAW welded sample is FA (ferrite–austenite) type with the microstructure consisting of an austenite matrix embedded with lath type and skeletal type ferrite. The nugget zone microstructure in the FSW welded samples consisted of equiaxed dynamically recrystallized austenite grains with some amount of elongated delta ferrite. Sigma phase precipitates were formed in the region ahead the rotating tool during the heating cycle of FSW, which were finally fragmented into nanometric particles and distributed in the weld nugget. Also there is a high possibility that the existingmore » delta ferrite in the microstructure rapidly transforms into sigma phase particles during the short thermal cycle of FSW. These suggest that high strain and deformation during FSW can promote sigma phase formation. The final austenite grain size in the nugget zone was found to decrease with increasing Zener–Hollomon parameter, which was obtained quantitatively by measuring the peak temperature, calculating the strain rate during FSW and exact examination of hot deformation activation energy by considering the actual grain size before the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization. Mechanical properties observations showed that the welding efficiency of the FSW welded sample is around 70%, which is more than 20% higher than the GTAW welded sample. - Highlights: • Microstructure and mechanical properties of UFG 304L stainless steel were studied during GTAW and FSW. • Sigma phase formation mechanism was studied during FSW of 304L stainless steel. • THERMOCALC analysis was performed to obtain possible formation temperatures for sigma phase. • Nano-mechanical twins were found in the TMAZ region.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2];  [1]
  1. Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, 84156-83111 Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
  2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22587050
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Materials Characterization
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 109; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 1044-5803
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; AUSTENITE; EFFICIENCY; ELECTRON DIFFRACTION; FERRITES; FILLER METALS; FILLERS; GAS TUNGSTEN-ARC WELDING; GRAIN SIZE; MICROHARDNESS; NANOSTRUCTURES; RECRYSTALLIZATION; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; STAINLESS STEEL-304L; STRAIN RATE; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; TUNGSTEN; WELDED JOINTS

Citation Formats

Sabooni, S., E-mail: s.sabooni@ma.iut.ac.ir, Karimzadeh, F., Enayati, M. H., Ngan, A. H.W., and Jabbari, H. Gas tungsten arc welding and friction stir welding of ultrafine grained AISI 304L stainless steel: Microstructural and mechanical behavior characterization. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2015.08.009.
Sabooni, S., E-mail: s.sabooni@ma.iut.ac.ir, Karimzadeh, F., Enayati, M. H., Ngan, A. H.W., & Jabbari, H. Gas tungsten arc welding and friction stir welding of ultrafine grained AISI 304L stainless steel: Microstructural and mechanical behavior characterization. United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2015.08.009
Sabooni, S., E-mail: s.sabooni@ma.iut.ac.ir, Karimzadeh, F., Enayati, M. H., Ngan, A. H.W., and Jabbari, H. 2015. "Gas tungsten arc welding and friction stir welding of ultrafine grained AISI 304L stainless steel: Microstructural and mechanical behavior characterization". United States. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2015.08.009.
@article{osti_22587050,
title = {Gas tungsten arc welding and friction stir welding of ultrafine grained AISI 304L stainless steel: Microstructural and mechanical behavior characterization},
author = {Sabooni, S., E-mail: s.sabooni@ma.iut.ac.ir and Karimzadeh, F. and Enayati, M. H. and Ngan, A. H.W. and Jabbari, H.},
abstractNote = {In the present study, an ultrafine grained (UFG) AISI 304L stainless steel with the average grain size of 650 nm was successfully welded by both gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and friction stir welding (FSW). GTAW was applied without any filler metal. FSW was also performed at a constant rotational speed of 630 rpm and different welding speeds from 20 to 80 mm/min. Microstructural characterization was carried out by High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscopy (HRSEM) with Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Nanoindentation, microhardness measurements and tensile tests were also performed to study the mechanical properties of the base metal and weldments. The results showed that the solidification mode in the GTAW welded sample is FA (ferrite–austenite) type with the microstructure consisting of an austenite matrix embedded with lath type and skeletal type ferrite. The nugget zone microstructure in the FSW welded samples consisted of equiaxed dynamically recrystallized austenite grains with some amount of elongated delta ferrite. Sigma phase precipitates were formed in the region ahead the rotating tool during the heating cycle of FSW, which were finally fragmented into nanometric particles and distributed in the weld nugget. Also there is a high possibility that the existing delta ferrite in the microstructure rapidly transforms into sigma phase particles during the short thermal cycle of FSW. These suggest that high strain and deformation during FSW can promote sigma phase formation. The final austenite grain size in the nugget zone was found to decrease with increasing Zener–Hollomon parameter, which was obtained quantitatively by measuring the peak temperature, calculating the strain rate during FSW and exact examination of hot deformation activation energy by considering the actual grain size before the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization. Mechanical properties observations showed that the welding efficiency of the FSW welded sample is around 70%, which is more than 20% higher than the GTAW welded sample. - Highlights: • Microstructure and mechanical properties of UFG 304L stainless steel were studied during GTAW and FSW. • Sigma phase formation mechanism was studied during FSW of 304L stainless steel. • THERMOCALC analysis was performed to obtain possible formation temperatures for sigma phase. • Nano-mechanical twins were found in the TMAZ region.},
doi = {10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2015.08.009},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22587050}, journal = {Materials Characterization},
issn = {1044-5803},
number = ,
volume = 109,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {11}
}