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Title: Postinflationary vacuum instability and Higgs-inflaton couplings

Abstract

The Higgs-inflaton coupling plays an important role in the Higgs field dynamics in the early Universe. Even a tiny coupling generated at loop level can have a dramatic effect on the fate of the electroweak vacuum. Such Higgs-inflaton interaction is present both at the trilinear and quartic levels in realistic reheating models. In this work, we examine the Higgs dynamics during the preheating epoch, focusing on the effects of the parametric and tachyonic resonances. We use lattice simulations and other numerical tools in our studies. We find that the resonances can induce large fluctuations of the Higgs field which destabilize the electroweak vacuum. Our considerations thus provide an upper bound on quartic and trilinear interactions between the Higgs and the inflaton. We conclude that there exists a favorable range of the couplings within which the Higgs field is stabilized during both inflation and preheating epochs.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]; ; ;  [1]
  1. University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics,P.O. Box 64, Helsinki, FI-00014 (Finland)
  2. University of Jyväskylä, Department of Physics,P.O. Box 35 (YFL), Jyväskylä, FI-40014 (Finland)
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
SCOAP3, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)
OSTI Identifier:
22572183
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics; Journal Volume: 2016; Journal Issue: 11; Other Information: PUBLISHER-ID: JCAP11(2016)025; OAI: oai:repo.scoap3.org:17888; cc-by Article funded by SCOAP3. Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COSMOLOGICAL INFLATION; COUPLING; HEAT TREATMENTS; HIGGS BOSONS; HIGGS MODEL; INFLATIONARY UNIVERSE; INFLATONS; LATTICE FIELD THEORY; TACHYONS

Citation Formats

Enqvist, Kari, Karčiauskas, Mindaugas, Lebedev, Oleg, Rusak, Stanislav, and Zatta, Marco. Postinflationary vacuum instability and Higgs-inflaton couplings. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2016/11/025.
Enqvist, Kari, Karčiauskas, Mindaugas, Lebedev, Oleg, Rusak, Stanislav, & Zatta, Marco. Postinflationary vacuum instability and Higgs-inflaton couplings. United States. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2016/11/025.
Enqvist, Kari, Karčiauskas, Mindaugas, Lebedev, Oleg, Rusak, Stanislav, and Zatta, Marco. Fri . "Postinflationary vacuum instability and Higgs-inflaton couplings". United States. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2016/11/025.
@article{osti_22572183,
title = {Postinflationary vacuum instability and Higgs-inflaton couplings},
author = {Enqvist, Kari and Karčiauskas, Mindaugas and Lebedev, Oleg and Rusak, Stanislav and Zatta, Marco},
abstractNote = {The Higgs-inflaton coupling plays an important role in the Higgs field dynamics in the early Universe. Even a tiny coupling generated at loop level can have a dramatic effect on the fate of the electroweak vacuum. Such Higgs-inflaton interaction is present both at the trilinear and quartic levels in realistic reheating models. In this work, we examine the Higgs dynamics during the preheating epoch, focusing on the effects of the parametric and tachyonic resonances. We use lattice simulations and other numerical tools in our studies. We find that the resonances can induce large fluctuations of the Higgs field which destabilize the electroweak vacuum. Our considerations thus provide an upper bound on quartic and trilinear interactions between the Higgs and the inflaton. We conclude that there exists a favorable range of the couplings within which the Higgs field is stabilized during both inflation and preheating epochs.},
doi = {10.1088/1475-7516/2016/11/025},
journal = {Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics},
number = 11,
volume = 2016,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Nov 11 00:00:00 EST 2016},
month = {Fri Nov 11 00:00:00 EST 2016}
}
  • Apparent metastability of the electroweak vacuum poses a number of cosmological questions. These concern evolution of the Higgs field to the current vacuum, and its stability during and after inflation. Higgs-inflaton and non-minimal Higgs-gravity interactions can make a crucial impact on these considerations potentially solving the problems. In this work, we allow for these couplings to be present simultaneously and study their interplay. We find that different combinations of the Higgs-inflaton and non-minimal Higgs-gravity couplings induce effective Higgs mass during and after inflation. This crucially affects the Higgs stability considerations during preheating. In particular, a wide range of the couplingsmore » leading to stable solutions becomes allowed.« less
  • In this work, we investigated the electroweak vacuum instability during or after inflation. In the inflationary Universe, i.e., de Sitter space, the vacuum field fluctuations < δ φ {sup 2} > enlarge in proportion to the Hubble scale H {sup 2}. Therefore, the large inflationary vacuum fluctuations of the Higgs field < δ φ {sup 2} > are potentially catastrophic to trigger the vacuum transition to the negative-energy Planck-scale vacuum state and cause an immediate collapse of the Universe. However, the vacuum field fluctuations < δ φ {sup 2} >, i.e., the vacuum expectation values have an ultraviolet divergence, andmore » therefore a renormalization is necessary to estimate the physical effects of the vacuum transition. Thus, in this paper, we revisit the electroweak vacuum instability from the perspective of quantum field theory (QFT) in curved space-time, and discuss the dynamical behavior of the homogeneous Higgs field φ determined by the effective potential V {sub eff}( φ ) in curved space-time and the renormalized vacuum fluctuations < δ φ {sup 2} >{sub ren} via adiabatic regularization and point-splitting regularization. We simply suppose that the Higgs field only couples the gravity via the non-minimal Higgs-gravity coupling ξ(μ). In this scenario, the electroweak vacuum stability is inevitably threatened by the dynamical behavior of the homogeneous Higgs field φ, or the formations of AdS domains or bubbles unless the Hubble scale is small enough H < Λ {sub I} .« less
  • We discuss a new extended-inflationary scenario evading the difficulties of the original model. Our model can thermalize the energy in the bubble walls by the necessary epoch, and establish a Robertson-Walker frame in the bubble clusters. The essential new ingredient in our model is the observation that the coupling of inflaton to the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field is expected to be different from that of visible matter.
  • The SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ x U(1) model of weak and electromagnetic interactions requires a minimum of two Higgs multiplets, Phi and P, to have the residual electromagnetic U(1) symmetry after the spontaneous symmetry breaking. With this minimum number of Higgs multiplets, we study the existence of a metastable vacuum and the corresponding limits on the masses of Higgs bosons using the effective potential in the one-loop approximation. Demanding that this model have the same neutrino neutral-current interactions as those of th Weinberg-Salam model and using the available phenomenological information, we get the minimum value for the sum ofmore » the squares of masses, M/sub plus-or-minus/, of two of the neutral Higgs bosons in terms of a parameter which involves the mixing of Phi and P, assuming a stable asymmetric vacuum exists. Under the assumption that the (mass)/sup 2/ matrix of the Higgs bosons is diagonal, we obtain (M/sub +//sup 2/ + M/sub -//sup 2/)/sup 1/2/ > 11.4 GeV. No limit can be placed on the other Higgs bosons with the presently available information.« less
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