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Title: TU-AB-303-05: Clinical Guidelines for Determining When An Adaptive Replan May Be Warranted for Head and Neck Patients

Abstract

Purpose: Tools are now available to perform daily dose assessment in radiotherapy, however, guidance is lacking as to when to replan to limit increase in normal tissue dose. This work performs statistical analysis to provide guidance for when adaptive replanning may be necessary for head/neck (HN) patients. Methods: Planning CT and daily kVCBCT images for 50 HN patients treated with VMAT were retrospectively evaluated. Twelve of 50 patients were replanned due to anatomical changes noted over their RT course. Daily dose assessment was performed to calculate the variation between the planned and delivered dose for the 38 patients not replanned and the patients replanned using their delivered plan. In addition, for the replanned patients, the dose that would have been delivered if the plan was not modified was also quantified. Deviations in dose were analyzed before and after replanning, the daily variations in patients who were not replanned assessed, and the predictive power of the deviation after 1, 5, and 15 fractions determined. Results: Dose deviations were significantly reduced following replanning, compared to if the original plan would have been delivered for the entire course. Early deviations were significantly correlated with total deviations (p<0.01). Using the criteria that a 10%more » increase in the final delivered dose indicates a replan may be needed earlier in the treatment course, the following guidelines can be made with a 90% specificity after the first 5 fractions: deviations of 7% in the mean dose to the inferior constrictors and 5% in the mean dose to the parotid glands and submandibular glands. No significant dose deviations were observed in any patients for the CTV -70Gy (max deviation 4%). Conclusions: A 5–7% increase in mean dose to normal tissues within the first 5 fractions strongly correlate to an overall deviatios in the delivered dose for HN patients. This work is funded in part by NIH 2P01CA059827-16.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22562995
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 42; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; ANIMAL TISSUES; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; DAILY VARIATIONS; GLANDS; HEAD; NECK; PATIENTS; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; RECOMMENDATIONS

Citation Formats

Brock, K, Lee, C, Samuels, S, Robbe, M, Lockhart, C, Schipper, M, Matuszak, M, and Eisbruch, A. TU-AB-303-05: Clinical Guidelines for Determining When An Adaptive Replan May Be Warranted for Head and Neck Patients. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4925522.
Brock, K, Lee, C, Samuels, S, Robbe, M, Lockhart, C, Schipper, M, Matuszak, M, & Eisbruch, A. TU-AB-303-05: Clinical Guidelines for Determining When An Adaptive Replan May Be Warranted for Head and Neck Patients. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4925522.
Brock, K, Lee, C, Samuels, S, Robbe, M, Lockhart, C, Schipper, M, Matuszak, M, and Eisbruch, A. 2015. "TU-AB-303-05: Clinical Guidelines for Determining When An Adaptive Replan May Be Warranted for Head and Neck Patients". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4925522.
@article{osti_22562995,
title = {TU-AB-303-05: Clinical Guidelines for Determining When An Adaptive Replan May Be Warranted for Head and Neck Patients},
author = {Brock, K and Lee, C and Samuels, S and Robbe, M and Lockhart, C and Schipper, M and Matuszak, M and Eisbruch, A},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Tools are now available to perform daily dose assessment in radiotherapy, however, guidance is lacking as to when to replan to limit increase in normal tissue dose. This work performs statistical analysis to provide guidance for when adaptive replanning may be necessary for head/neck (HN) patients. Methods: Planning CT and daily kVCBCT images for 50 HN patients treated with VMAT were retrospectively evaluated. Twelve of 50 patients were replanned due to anatomical changes noted over their RT course. Daily dose assessment was performed to calculate the variation between the planned and delivered dose for the 38 patients not replanned and the patients replanned using their delivered plan. In addition, for the replanned patients, the dose that would have been delivered if the plan was not modified was also quantified. Deviations in dose were analyzed before and after replanning, the daily variations in patients who were not replanned assessed, and the predictive power of the deviation after 1, 5, and 15 fractions determined. Results: Dose deviations were significantly reduced following replanning, compared to if the original plan would have been delivered for the entire course. Early deviations were significantly correlated with total deviations (p<0.01). Using the criteria that a 10% increase in the final delivered dose indicates a replan may be needed earlier in the treatment course, the following guidelines can be made with a 90% specificity after the first 5 fractions: deviations of 7% in the mean dose to the inferior constrictors and 5% in the mean dose to the parotid glands and submandibular glands. No significant dose deviations were observed in any patients for the CTV -70Gy (max deviation 4%). Conclusions: A 5–7% increase in mean dose to normal tissues within the first 5 fractions strongly correlate to an overall deviatios in the delivered dose for HN patients. This work is funded in part by NIH 2P01CA059827-16.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4925522},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 42,
place = {United States},
year = 2015,
month = 6
}
  • Purpose: To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of pretreatment [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma patients with nodal metastasis treated with chemoradiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Between March 2002 and December 2006, 178 patients with head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma and nodal metastasis underwent fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography before chemoradiotherapy. Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake by both the primary lesion and the neck node was measured using the standard uptake value (SUV). The overall survival, disease-free survival, local control, nodal progression-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival rates were calculated, and several prognostic factors were evaluated. Results: The patients with a nodal SUV {>=}6.00 hadmore » a significantly lower 3-year disease-free survival rate than those with a lower SUV (44% vs. 69%, p = .004). On multivariate analysis, a high SUV of nodal disease also proved to be a significantly unfavorable factor for disease-free survival (p = .04, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-3.23), nodal progression-free survival (p = .05; 95% CI, 1.00-4.15), and distant metastasis-free survival (p = .016; 95% CI, 1.25-8.92). Among the patients with a greater nodal SUV ({>=}6.00), those treated with planned neck dissection had better nodal progression-free survival than those in the observation group (p = .04, hazard ratio, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.00-5.85). Conclusion: Among head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with chemoradiotherapy, the pretreatment SUV of nodal disease was one of the strongest prognostic factors and also provided important information for the selection of patients suitable for planned neck dissection.« less
  • Purpose: To determine the optimal clinical target volume margins around the gross nodal tumor volume in head-and-neck cancer by assessing microscopic tumor extension beyond cervical lymph node capsules. Methods and Materials: Histologic sections of 96 dissected cervical lymph nodes with extracapsular extension (ECE) from 48 patients with head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma were examined. The maximum linear distance from the external capsule border to the farthest extent of the tumor or tumoral reaction was measured. The trends of ECE as a function of the distance from the capsule and lymph node size were analyzed. Results: The median diameter of all lymphmore » nodes was 11.0 mm (range: 3.0-30.0 mm). The mean and median ECE extent was 2.2 mm and 1.6 mm, respectively (range: 0.4-9.0 mm). The ECE was <5 mm from the capsule in 96% of the nodes. As the distance from the capsule increased, the probability of tumor extension declined. No significant difference between the extent of ECE and lymph node size was observed. Conclusion: For N1 nodes that are at high risk for ECE but not grossly infiltrating musculature, 1 cm clinical target volume margins around the nodal gross tumor volume are recommended to cover microscopic nodal extension in head-and-neck cancer.« less
  • Direct Machine Parameter Optimization (DMPO) is a leaf segmentation program released as an optional item of the Pinnacle planning system (Philips Radiation Oncology Systems, Milpitas, CA); it is based on the principles of direct aperture optimization where the size, shape, and weight of individual segments are optimized to produce an intensity modulated radiation treatment (IMRT) plan. In this study, we compare DMPO to the traditional method of IMRT planning, in which intensity maps are optimized prior to conversion into deliverable multileaf collimator (MLC) apertures, and we determine if there was any dosimetric improvement, treatment efficiency gain, or planning advantage providedmore » by the use of DMPO. Eleven head-and-neck patients treated with IMRT had treatment plans generated using each optimization method. For each patient, the same planning parameters were used for each optimization method. All calculations were performed using Pinnacle version 7.6c software and treatments were delivered using a step-and-shoot IMRT method on a Varian 2100EX linear accelerator equipped with a 120-leaf Millennium MLC (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA). Each plan was assessed based on the calculation time, a conformity index, the composite objective value used in the optimization, the number of segments, monitor units (MUs), and treatment time. The results showed DMPO to be superior to the traditional optimization method in all areas. Considerable advantages were observed in the dosimetric quality of DMPO plans, which also required 32% less time to calculate, 42% fewer MUs, and 35% fewer segments than the conventional optimization method. These reductions translated directly into a 29% decrease in treatment times. While considerable gains were observed in planning and treatment efficiency, they were specific to our institution, and the impact of direct aperture optimization on plan quality and workflow will be dependent on the planning parameters, planning system, and linear accelerators used by a particular institution.« less
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