```
Jing, Jiliang, E-mail: jljing@hunnu.edu.cn, Chen, Songbai, and Pan, Qiyuan.
```*Geometric optics for a coupling model of electromagnetic and gravitational fields*. United States: N. p., 2016.
Web. doi:10.1016/J.AOP.2016.01.015.

```
Jing, Jiliang, E-mail: jljing@hunnu.edu.cn, Chen, Songbai, & Pan, Qiyuan.
```*Geometric optics for a coupling model of electromagnetic and gravitational fields*. United States. doi:10.1016/J.AOP.2016.01.015.

```
Jing, Jiliang, E-mail: jljing@hunnu.edu.cn, Chen, Songbai, and Pan, Qiyuan. 2016.
"Geometric optics for a coupling model of electromagnetic and gravitational fields". United States.
doi:10.1016/J.AOP.2016.01.015.
```

```
@article{osti_22560312,
```

title = {Geometric optics for a coupling model of electromagnetic and gravitational fields},

author = {Jing, Jiliang, E-mail: jljing@hunnu.edu.cn and Chen, Songbai and Pan, Qiyuan},

abstractNote = {The coupling between the electromagnetic and gravitational fields results in “faster than light” photons, and then the first and third laws of geometric optics are invalid in usual spacetime. By introducing an effective spacetime, we find that the wave vector can be casted into null and then it obeys the geodesic equation, the polarization vector is perpendicular to the rays, and the number of photons is conserved. That is to say, the laws of geometric optics are valid for the modified theory in the effective spacetime. We also show that the focusing theorem of light rays for the modified theory in the effective spacetime can be cast into the usual form.},

doi = {10.1016/J.AOP.2016.01.015},

journal = {Annals of Physics},

number = Complete,

volume = 367,

place = {United States},

year = 2016,

month = 4

}