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Title: SU-E-T-46: A Monte Carlo Investigation of Radiation Interactions with Gold Nanoparticles in Water for 6 MV, 85 KeV and 40 KeV Photon Beams

Abstract

Purpose: To determine the effect of gold-nanoparticles (AuNPs) on energy deposition in water for different irradiation conditions. Methods: TOPAS version B12 Monte Carlo code was used to simulate energy deposition in water from monoenergetic 40 keV and 85 keV photon beams and a 6 MV Varian Clinac photon beam (IAEA phase space file, 10x10 cm{sup 2}, SSD 100 cm). For the 40 and 85 keV beams, monoenergetic 2x2 mm{sup 2} parallel beams were used to irradiate a 30x30x10 µm {sup 3} water mini-phantom located at 1.5 cm depth in a 30x30x50 cm{sup 3} water phantom. 5000 AuNPs of 50 nm diameter were randomly distributed inside the mini-phantom. Energy deposition was scored in the mini-phantom with the AuNPs’ material set to gold and then water. For the 6 MV beam, we created another phase space (PHSP) file on the surface of a 2 mm diameter sphere located at 1.5 cm depth in the water phantom. The PHSP file consisted of all particles entering the sphere including backscattered particles. Simulations were then performed using the new PHSP as the source with the mini-phantom centered in a 2 mm diameter water sphere in vacuum. The g4em-livermore reference list was used with “EMRangeMin/EMRangeMax =more » 100 eV/7 MeV” and “SetProductionCutLowerEdge = 990 eV” to create the new PHSP, and “SetProductionCutLowerEdge = 100 eV” for the mini-phantom simulations. All other parameters were set as defaults (“finalRange = 100 µm”). Results: The addition of AuNPs resulted in an increase in the mini-phantom energy deposition of (7.5 ± 8.7)%, (1.6 ± 8.2)%, and (−0.6 ± 1.1)% for 40 keV, 85 keV and 6 MV beams respectively. Conclusion: Enhanced energy deposition was seen at low photon energies, but decreased with increasing energy. No enhancement was observed for the 6 MV beam. Future work is required to decrease the statistical uncertainties in the simulations. This research is partially supported from institutional funds from the Center for Radiation Oncology Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX. (United States)
  2. (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22545177
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 42; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BORON 12; ENERGY ABSORPTION; ENERGY LOSSES; INTERACTIONS; IRRADIATION; MONTE CARLO METHOD; NANOPARTICLES; PHANTOMS; PHASE SPACE; PHOTON BEAMS

Citation Formats

Flint, D B, O’Brien, D J, McFadden, C H, Wolfe, T, Krishnan, S, Sawakuchi, G O, Hallacy, T M, and Rice University, Houston, TX. SU-E-T-46: A Monte Carlo Investigation of Radiation Interactions with Gold Nanoparticles in Water for 6 MV, 85 KeV and 40 KeV Photon Beams. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4924407.
Flint, D B, O’Brien, D J, McFadden, C H, Wolfe, T, Krishnan, S, Sawakuchi, G O, Hallacy, T M, & Rice University, Houston, TX. SU-E-T-46: A Monte Carlo Investigation of Radiation Interactions with Gold Nanoparticles in Water for 6 MV, 85 KeV and 40 KeV Photon Beams. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4924407.
Flint, D B, O’Brien, D J, McFadden, C H, Wolfe, T, Krishnan, S, Sawakuchi, G O, Hallacy, T M, and Rice University, Houston, TX. Mon . "SU-E-T-46: A Monte Carlo Investigation of Radiation Interactions with Gold Nanoparticles in Water for 6 MV, 85 KeV and 40 KeV Photon Beams". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4924407.
@article{osti_22545177,
title = {SU-E-T-46: A Monte Carlo Investigation of Radiation Interactions with Gold Nanoparticles in Water for 6 MV, 85 KeV and 40 KeV Photon Beams},
author = {Flint, D B and O’Brien, D J and McFadden, C H and Wolfe, T and Krishnan, S and Sawakuchi, G O and Hallacy, T M and Rice University, Houston, TX},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To determine the effect of gold-nanoparticles (AuNPs) on energy deposition in water for different irradiation conditions. Methods: TOPAS version B12 Monte Carlo code was used to simulate energy deposition in water from monoenergetic 40 keV and 85 keV photon beams and a 6 MV Varian Clinac photon beam (IAEA phase space file, 10x10 cm{sup 2}, SSD 100 cm). For the 40 and 85 keV beams, monoenergetic 2x2 mm{sup 2} parallel beams were used to irradiate a 30x30x10 µm {sup 3} water mini-phantom located at 1.5 cm depth in a 30x30x50 cm{sup 3} water phantom. 5000 AuNPs of 50 nm diameter were randomly distributed inside the mini-phantom. Energy deposition was scored in the mini-phantom with the AuNPs’ material set to gold and then water. For the 6 MV beam, we created another phase space (PHSP) file on the surface of a 2 mm diameter sphere located at 1.5 cm depth in the water phantom. The PHSP file consisted of all particles entering the sphere including backscattered particles. Simulations were then performed using the new PHSP as the source with the mini-phantom centered in a 2 mm diameter water sphere in vacuum. The g4em-livermore reference list was used with “EMRangeMin/EMRangeMax = 100 eV/7 MeV” and “SetProductionCutLowerEdge = 990 eV” to create the new PHSP, and “SetProductionCutLowerEdge = 100 eV” for the mini-phantom simulations. All other parameters were set as defaults (“finalRange = 100 µm”). Results: The addition of AuNPs resulted in an increase in the mini-phantom energy deposition of (7.5 ± 8.7)%, (1.6 ± 8.2)%, and (−0.6 ± 1.1)% for 40 keV, 85 keV and 6 MV beams respectively. Conclusion: Enhanced energy deposition was seen at low photon energies, but decreased with increasing energy. No enhancement was observed for the 6 MV beam. Future work is required to decrease the statistical uncertainties in the simulations. This research is partially supported from institutional funds from the Center for Radiation Oncology Research, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4924407},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 42,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2015},
month = {Mon Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2015}
}
  • Purpose: To quantify the dosimetric variations of misaligned beams for a linear accelerator by using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Method and Materials: Misaligned beams of a Varian 21EX Clinac were simulated to estimate the dosimetric effects. All the linac head components for a 6 MV photon beam were implemented in BEAMnrc/EGSnrc system. For incident electron beam parameters, 6 MeV with 0.1 cm full-width-half-max Gaussian beam was used. A phase space file was obtained below the jaw per each misalignment condition of the incident electron beam: (1) The incident electron beams were tilted by 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 degrees on themore » x-axis from the central axis. (2) The center of the incident electron beam was off-axially moved toward +x-axis by 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 cm away from the central axis. Lateral profiles for each misaligned beam condition were acquired at dmax = 1.5 cm and 10 cm depth in a rectangular water phantom. Beam flatness and symmetry were calculated by using the lateral profile data. Results: The lateral profiles were found to be skewed opposite to the angle of the incident beam for the tilted beams. For the displaced beams, similar skewed lateral profiles were obtained with small shifts of penumbra on the +x-axis. The variations of beam flatness were 3.89–11.18% and 4.12–42.57% for the tilted beam and the translated beam, respectively. The beam symmetry was separately found to be 2.95 −9.93% and 2.55–38.06% separately. It was found that the percent increase of the flatness and the symmetry values are approximated 2 to 3% per 0.5 degree tilt or per 1 mm displacement. Conclusion: This study quantified the dosimetric effects of misaligned beams using MC simulations. The results would be useful to understand the magnitude of the dosimetric deviations for the misaligned beams.« less
  • Purpose: To assess differences in treatment plan quality between VMAT stereotactic body plans generated using the 6 MV, 6 MV FFF, and 10 MV FFF modalities available in our clinic. Plans for lung, spine, and other sites were compared to see if there is any advantage of one modality over the other. Methods: Treatment plans done for actual SBRT patients were selected. Groups of ten lung plans, five spine plans, and five plans from other sites were selected. New treatment plans were generated for each plan using the Varian Eclipse AAA algorithm. The constraints were kept the same as usedmore » in the actual plans, but the same version of software was used to generate plans for the three modalities. In addition, because there are natural variations in plans re-done with the same dose constraints, one of the lung plans was repeated ten times to assess those differences. Volumes of the 100%, 90%, 50%, 20% and 10% isodose surfaces were compared. Maximum dose two centimeters from the PTV were compared, as well as the volume of the 105% isodose surface outside of the PTV. In addition, the 20 Gray lung volume was compared for the lung plans. The values of these parameters were divided by the values for the 6 MV plans for comparison. Average and standard deviations were obtained for quantities in each group. The Student t test was done to determine if differences were seen at the 95% confidence level. Results: Comparison of the treatment plans showed no significant differences when assessing these volumes and doses. There were not any trends seen when comparing modalities as a function of PTV volume either. Conclusion: There is no obvious dosimetric advantage in selection of one modality over another for these types of SBRT plans.« less
  • Purpose: To study the potential applications of the lower energy (< 6MV) photon beams in the radiotherapeutic management of pediatric cancer and lung cancer patients. Methods: Photon beams of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6MV were first simulated with EGS4/BEAM and then used for Monte-Carlo dose calculations. For four pediatric patients with abdominal and brain lesions, six 3D-conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) plans were generated using single photon energy (2 to 6MV) or mixed energies (3 and 6MV). Furthermore, a virtual machine of 3 and 6MV was commissioned in a treatment planning system (TPS) based on Monte-Carlo simulated data. Three IMRT plansmore » of a lung cancer patient were generated on this virtual machine. All plans were normalized to D95% of target dose for 6MV plan and then compared in terms of integral dose and OAR sparing. Results: For the four pediatric patients, the integral dose for the 2, 3, 4 and 5MV plans increased by 9%, 5%, 3.5%, 1.7%, respectively as compared to 6MV. Almost all OARs in the 2MV plan received more than 10% more doses than 6MV. Mixed energy 3DCRT plans were of the same quality as 6MV plans. For the lung IMRT plans, both the 3MV plan and the mixed beam plan showed better OAR sparing in comparison to 6MV plan. Specifically, the maximum and mean doses to the spinal cord in the mixed energy plan were lower by 21% and 16%, respectively. Conclusion: Single lower energy photon beam was found to be inferior to 6MV in the radiotherapy of pediatric patients and lung cancer patients when the integral doses and the doses to the OARs were considered. However, mixed energy plans combining low with high energy beams showed significant OAR sparing while maintaining the same PTV coverage. Investigation with more patient data is ongoing for further confirmation.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate dose enhancement to cellular compartments following gold nanoparticle (GNP) uptake in tissue, varying cell and tissue morphology, intra and extracellular GNP distribution, and source energy using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. Methods: Models of single and multiple cells are developed for normal and cancerous tissues; cells (outer radii 5–10 µm) are modeled as concentric spheres comprising the nucleus (radii 2.5–7.5 µm) and cytoplasm. GNP distributions modeled include homogeneous distributions throughout the cytoplasm, variable numbers of GNP-containing endosomes within the cytoplasm, or distributed in a spherical shell about the nucleus. Gold concentrations range from 1 to 30 mg/g. Dosemore » to nucleus and to cytoplasm for simulations including GNPs are compared to simulations without GNPs to compute Nuclear and Cytoplasm Dose Enhancement Factors (NDEF, CDEF). Photon source energies are between 20 keV and 1.25 MeV. Results: DEFs are highly sensitive to GNP intracellular distribution; for a 2.5 µm radius nucleus irradiated by a 30 keV source, NDEF varies from 1.2 for a single endosome containing all GNPs to 8.2 for GNPs distributed about the nucleus (7 mg/g). DEFs vary with cell dimensions and source energy: NDEFs vary from 2.5 (90 keV) to 8.2 (30 keV) for a 2.5 µm radius nucleus and from 1.1 (90 keV) to 1.3 (30 keV) for a 7.5 µm radius nucleus, both with GNPs in a spherical shell about the nucleus (7 mg/g). NDEF and CDEF are generally different within a single cell. For multicell models, the presence of gold within intervening tissues between source and target perturbs the fluence reaching cellular targets, resulting in DEF inhomogeneities within a population of irradiated cells. Conclusion: DEFs vary by an order of magnitude for different cell models, GNP distributions, and source energies, demonstrating the importance of detailed modelling for advancing GNP development for radiotherapy. Funding provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada (NSERC), and the Canada Research Chairs Program (CRC)« less
  • Purpose: Today the majority of radiation therapy treatments are performed at medical electron linear accelerators (linacs). The accelerated electrons are used for the generation of bremsstrahlung photons. The use of higher electron respectively photon energies has some advantages over lower energies such as the longer dose build-up. However photons with energies higher than ∼7 MeV can additionally to the interaction with bound electrons undergo inelastic reactions with nuclei. These photonuclear reactions lead to the emission of fast neutrons which contaminate the primary photon field. The neutrons might penetrate through the collimators and deliver out-of-field dose to the patient. Furthermore themore » materials inside the linac head as well as the air inside the treatment room get activated which might deliver dose to the medical employees even when the linac is not in operation. A detailed knowledge of these effects is essential for adequate radiation protection of the employees and an optimal patient treatment. Methods: It is a common method to study the radiation fields of such linacs by means of Monte Carlo simulations. For the investigation of the effects caused by photonuclear reactions a typical linac in high energy mode (Varian Clinac 18 MV-X) as well as the surrounding bunker were modelled and simulated using the Monte Carlo code FLUKA which includes extensive nuclear reaction and neutron transport models additional to electron-photon transport as well as capabilities for a detailed study of effective dose distributions and activation yields. Results: Neutron spectra as well as neutron effective dose distributions within the bunker were obtained, reaching up to some mSv/Gy in the patient’s plane. The results are normalized per Gy in the depth dose maximum at 10×10 cm{sup 2} field size. Therefore an absolute interpretation is possible. Conclusion: The obtained data gives a better understanding of the photonuclear reaction caused effects.« less