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Title: Waste handling and storage in the decontamination pilot projects of JAEA for environments of Fukushima

Abstract

After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was chosen by the national government to conduct decontamination pilot projects at selected sites in Fukushima prefecture. Despite tight boundary conditions in terms of timescale and resources, the projects served their primary purpose to develop a knowledge base to support more effective planning and implementation of stepwise regional remediation of the evacuated zone. A range of established, modified and newly developed techniques were tested under realistic field conditions and their performance characteristics were determined. The results of the project can be summarized in terms of site characterization, cleanup and waste management. A range of options were investigated to reduce the volumes of waste produced and to ensure that decontamination water could be cleaned to the extent that it could be discharged to normal drainage. Resultant solid wastes were packaged in standard flexible containers, labelled and stored at the remediation site (temporary storage until central interim storage becomes available). The designs of such temporary storage facilities were tailored to available sites, but all designs included measures to ensure mechanical stability (e.g., filling void spaces between containers with sand, graded cover with soil) and prevent releases to groundwater (impermeable base andmore » cap, gravity flow drainage including radiation monitors and catch tanks). Storage site monitoring was also needed to check that storage structures would not be perturbed by external events that could include typhoons, heavy snowfalls, freeze/thaw cycles and earthquakes. (authors)« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Fukushima Environmental Safety Center, Headquarters of Fukushima Partnership Operations, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Fukushima (Japan)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
American Society of Mechanical Engineers - ASME, Nuclear Engineering Division, Environmental Engineering Division, Two Park Avenue, New York, NY 10016-5990 (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
22535280
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: ICEM2013 - ASME 2013: 15. International Conference on Environmental Remediation and Radioactive Waste Management, Brussels (Belgium), 8-12 Sep 2013; Other Information: Country of input: France; 6 refs
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS; DECONTAMINATION; FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI NUCLEAR POWER STATION; JAEA; RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROCESSING; RADIOACTIVE WASTE STORAGE; REACTOR ACCIDENTS

Citation Formats

Nakayama, S., Kawase, K., Iijima, K., and Kato, M. Waste handling and storage in the decontamination pilot projects of JAEA for environments of Fukushima. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1115/ICEM2013-96129.
Nakayama, S., Kawase, K., Iijima, K., & Kato, M. Waste handling and storage in the decontamination pilot projects of JAEA for environments of Fukushima. United States. doi:10.1115/ICEM2013-96129.
Nakayama, S., Kawase, K., Iijima, K., and Kato, M. Mon . "Waste handling and storage in the decontamination pilot projects of JAEA for environments of Fukushima". United States. doi:10.1115/ICEM2013-96129.
@article{osti_22535280,
title = {Waste handling and storage in the decontamination pilot projects of JAEA for environments of Fukushima},
author = {Nakayama, S. and Kawase, K. and Iijima, K. and Kato, M.},
abstractNote = {After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was chosen by the national government to conduct decontamination pilot projects at selected sites in Fukushima prefecture. Despite tight boundary conditions in terms of timescale and resources, the projects served their primary purpose to develop a knowledge base to support more effective planning and implementation of stepwise regional remediation of the evacuated zone. A range of established, modified and newly developed techniques were tested under realistic field conditions and their performance characteristics were determined. The results of the project can be summarized in terms of site characterization, cleanup and waste management. A range of options were investigated to reduce the volumes of waste produced and to ensure that decontamination water could be cleaned to the extent that it could be discharged to normal drainage. Resultant solid wastes were packaged in standard flexible containers, labelled and stored at the remediation site (temporary storage until central interim storage becomes available). The designs of such temporary storage facilities were tailored to available sites, but all designs included measures to ensure mechanical stability (e.g., filling void spaces between containers with sand, graded cover with soil) and prevent releases to groundwater (impermeable base and cap, gravity flow drainage including radiation monitors and catch tanks). Storage site monitoring was also needed to check that storage structures would not be perturbed by external events that could include typhoons, heavy snowfalls, freeze/thaw cycles and earthquakes. (authors)},
doi = {10.1115/ICEM2013-96129},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 2013},
month = {Mon Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 2013}
}

Conference:
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  • Technologies for waste management of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (F1NPS) have been investigated. It is expected that the amount of wastes will be considerable. It is considered that F1NPS wastes were contaminated with radionuclides contained in spent fuel and with activation products, therefore the number of nuclides which needs to be considered in evaluating disposal safety is high. As a result, it is possible that the technologies selected will be different from those of the current wastes from nuclear reactors and fuel cycle facilities. The secondary waste from the accumulated water treatment, contaminated rubble and trees were analyzed, andmore » the data obtained was provided for inventory evaluation. Demand on analytical data is strong, and sampling at the site and analysis have been continued. Storage safety of the secondary waste, especially for zeolite and sludge is under investigation. Investigation on conditioning and disposal was initiated, for survey on existing disposal concept assuming that both inventory and waste classification are uncertain. Different from usual methodology, these research and development activities should be conducted side-by-side.« less
  • Liquid wastes decontamination processes are mainly based on two techniques: Bulk processes and the so called Cartridges processes. The first technique has been developed for the French nuclear fuel reprocessing industry since the 60's in Marcoule and La Hague. It is a proven and mature technology which has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The second technique, involving cartridges processes, offers new opportunities for the use of innovative adsorbents. The AREVA process developed for Fukushima and some results obtained on site will be presented as well as laboratory scale resultsmore » obtained in CEA laboratories. Examples of new adsorbents development for liquid wastes decontamination are also given. A chemical process unit based on co-precipitation technique has been successfully and quickly implemented by AREVA at Fukushima site for the processing of contaminated waters. The asset of this technique is its ability to process large volumes in a continuous mode. Several chemical products can be used to address specific radioelements such as: Cs, Sr, Ru. Its drawback is the production of sludge (about 1% in volume of initial liquid volume). CEA developed strategies to model the co-precipitation phenomena in order to firstly minimize the quantity of added chemical reactants and secondly, minimize the size of co-precipitation units. We are on the way to design compact units that could be mobilized very quickly and efficiently in case of an accidental situation. Addressing the problem of sludge conditioning, cementation appears to be a very attractive solution. Fukushima accident has focused attention on optimizations that should be taken into account in future studies: - To better take account for non-typical aqueous matrixes like seawater; - To enlarge the spectrum of radioelements that can be efficiently processed and especially short lives radioelements that are usually less present in standard effluents resulting from nuclear activities; - To develop reversible solid adsorbents for cartridge-type applications in order to minimize wastes. (authors)« less
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  • The presence of NORM (naturally occurring radioactive material) in crude off and natural gas has been recognized since the 1930s. NORM forms when small quantities of radium and uranium precipitate with barium and calcium as carbonates or sulfates. The radium leaches from mineral deposits into adjacent water, and is then pumped to the surface with oil. NORM contamination can be a problem wherever scale precipitated in off production operations can accumulate. The most prevalent radioactive contamination is found in the South and along the Gulf Coast regions, where radium concentrations in the water are much higher than in other regions.more » The environmental as well as health and safety issues attendant to NORM in the oil and gas industry are receiving increased attention from both the public and private sectors. Although regulation of NORM in the United States is only emerging at this time, there appears to be a groundswell of state NORM regulations on the horizon. As a result of the enhanced regulatory climate and the proactive environmental mindset of the oil and gas industry, several major and independent oil and gas companies are in the process of cleanup and ultimate disposal of NORM.« less
  • The presence of NORM (naturally occurring radioactive material) in crude oil and natural gas has been recognized since the 1930s. NORM forms when small quantities of radium and uranium precipitate with barium and calcium as carbonates or sulfates. NORM has been found in virtually every oil producing region in the United States, from Alaska`s Prudhoe Bay to the deep, offshore rigs in the Gulf of Mexico, causing a build-up of low level radiation in oil field equipment. The radium leaches from mineral deposits into adjacent water, and is then pumped to the surface with oil. NORM contamination can be amore » problem wherever scale precipitated in oil production operations can accumulate. The most prevalent radioactive contamination is found in the South and along the Gulf Coast regions, where radium concentrations in the water are much higher than in other regions. The environmental as well as health and safety issues attendant to NORM in the oil and gas industry are receiving increased attention from both the public and private sectors. Although regulation of NORM in the United States is only emerging at this time, there appears to be a groundswell of state NORM regulations on the horizon. As a result of the enhanced regulatory climate and the proactive environmental mindset of the oil and gas industry, several major and independent oil and gas companies are in the process of cleanup and ultimate disposal of NORM.« less