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Title: Diffuse emission of high-energy neutrinos from gamma-ray burst fireballs

Abstract

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been suggested as possible sources of the high-energy neutrino flux recently detected by the IceCube telescope. We revisit the fireball emission model and elaborate an analytical prescription to estimate the high-energy neutrino prompt emission from pion and kaon decays, assuming that the leading mechanism for the neutrino production is lepto-hadronic. To this purpose, we include hadronic, radiative and adiabatic cooling effects and discuss their relevance for long- (including high- and low-luminosity) and short-duration GRBs. The expected diffuse neutrino background is derived, by requiring that the GRB high-energy neutrino counterparts follow up-to-date gamma-ray luminosity functions and redshift evolutions of the long and short GRBs. Although dedicated stacking searches have been unsuccessful up to now, we find that GRBs could contribute up to a few % to the observed IceCube high-energy neutrino flux for sub-PeV energies, assuming that the latter has a diffuse origin. Gamma-ray bursts, especially low-luminosity ones, could however be the main sources of the IceCube high-energy neutrino flux in the PeV range. While high-luminosity and low-luminosity GRBs have comparable intensities, the contribution from the short-duration component is significantly smaller. Our findings confirm the most-recent IceCube results on the GRB searches and suggest that larger exposuremore » is mandatory to detect high-energy neutrinos from high-luminosity GRBs in the near future.« less

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. GRAPPA Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22525369
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics; Journal Volume: 2015; Journal Issue: 09; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; COSMIC GAMMA BURSTS; COSMIC NEUTRINOS; GAMMA RADIATION; KAONS; LUMINOSITY; NUCLEAR FIREBALLS; PARTICLE PRODUCTION; PEV RANGE; PIONS; RED SHIFT; TELESCOPES

Citation Formats

Tamborra, Irene, and Ando, Shin'ichiro, E-mail: i.tamborra@uva.nl, E-mail: s.ando@uva.nl. Diffuse emission of high-energy neutrinos from gamma-ray burst fireballs. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2015/09/036.
Tamborra, Irene, & Ando, Shin'ichiro, E-mail: i.tamborra@uva.nl, E-mail: s.ando@uva.nl. Diffuse emission of high-energy neutrinos from gamma-ray burst fireballs. United States. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2015/09/036.
Tamborra, Irene, and Ando, Shin'ichiro, E-mail: i.tamborra@uva.nl, E-mail: s.ando@uva.nl. 2015. "Diffuse emission of high-energy neutrinos from gamma-ray burst fireballs". United States. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2015/09/036.
@article{osti_22525369,
title = {Diffuse emission of high-energy neutrinos from gamma-ray burst fireballs},
author = {Tamborra, Irene and Ando, Shin'ichiro, E-mail: i.tamborra@uva.nl, E-mail: s.ando@uva.nl},
abstractNote = {Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have been suggested as possible sources of the high-energy neutrino flux recently detected by the IceCube telescope. We revisit the fireball emission model and elaborate an analytical prescription to estimate the high-energy neutrino prompt emission from pion and kaon decays, assuming that the leading mechanism for the neutrino production is lepto-hadronic. To this purpose, we include hadronic, radiative and adiabatic cooling effects and discuss their relevance for long- (including high- and low-luminosity) and short-duration GRBs. The expected diffuse neutrino background is derived, by requiring that the GRB high-energy neutrino counterparts follow up-to-date gamma-ray luminosity functions and redshift evolutions of the long and short GRBs. Although dedicated stacking searches have been unsuccessful up to now, we find that GRBs could contribute up to a few % to the observed IceCube high-energy neutrino flux for sub-PeV energies, assuming that the latter has a diffuse origin. Gamma-ray bursts, especially low-luminosity ones, could however be the main sources of the IceCube high-energy neutrino flux in the PeV range. While high-luminosity and low-luminosity GRBs have comparable intensities, the contribution from the short-duration component is significantly smaller. Our findings confirm the most-recent IceCube results on the GRB searches and suggest that larger exposure is mandatory to detect high-energy neutrinos from high-luminosity GRBs in the near future.},
doi = {10.1088/1475-7516/2015/09/036},
journal = {Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics},
number = 09,
volume = 2015,
place = {United States},
year = 2015,
month = 9
}
  • Observations suggest that {gamma}-ray bursts (GRBs) are produced by the dissipation of the kinetic energy of a relativistic fireball. We show that a large fraction, {ge}10{percent}, of the fireball energy is expected to be converted by photomeson production to a burst of {approximately}10{sup 14}eV neutrinos. A km{sup 2} neutrino detector would observe at least several tens of events per year correlated with GRBs, and test for neutrino properties (e.g., flavor oscillations, for which upward moving {tau}{close_quote}s would be a unique signature, and coupling to gravity) with an accuracy many orders of magnitude better than is currently possible. {copyright} {ital 1997}more » {ital The American Physical Society}« less
  • We derive upper limits on the ratio f{sub GRB/CCSN}(z){identical_to}R{sub GRB}(z)/R{sub CCSN}(z){identical_to}f{sub GRB/CCSN}(0)(1+z){sup {alpha}}, the ratio of the rate, R{sub GRB}, of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to the rate, R{sub CCSN}, of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) in the Universe (z being the cosmological redshift and {alpha}{>=}0), by using the upper limit on the diffuse TeV-PeV neutrino background given by the AMANDA-II experiment in the South Pole, under the assumption that GRBs are sources of TeV-PeV neutrinos produced from decay of charged pions produced in p{gamma} interaction of protons accelerated to ultrahigh energies at internal shocks within GRB jets. For the assumed ''concordancemore » model'' of cosmic star formation rate, R{sub SF}, with R{sub CCSN}(z){proportional_to}R{sub SF}(z), our conservative upper limits are f{sub GRB/CCSN}(0){<=}5.0x10{sup -3} for {alpha}=0, and f{sub GRB/CCSN}(0){<=}1.1x10{sup -3} for {alpha}=2, for example. These limits are already comparable to (and, for {alpha}{>=}1, already more restrictive than) the current upper limit on this ratio inferred from other astronomical considerations, thus providing a useful independent probe of and constraint on the CCSN-GRB connection. Nondetection of a diffuse TeV-PeV neutrino background by the upcoming IceCube detector in the South Pole after three years of operation, for example, will bring down the upper limit on f{sub GRB/CCSN}(0) to below a few x10{sup -5} level, while a detection will confirm the hypothesis of proton acceleration to ultrahigh energies in GRBs and will potentially also yield the true rate of occurrence of these events in the Universe.« less
  • The long and short gamma-ray bursts are believed to be produced due to collapse of massive stars and merger of compact binaries respectively. All these objects are rich in neutron and the jet outflow from these objects must have a neutron component in it. By postulating the nn-bar oscillation in the gamma-ray burst fireball, we show that, 19-38 GeV neutrinos and anti-neutrinos can be produced due to annihilation of anti-neutrons with the background neutrons. These neutrinos and anti-neutrinos will be produced before the 5-10 GeV neutrinos due to dynamical decoupling of neutrons from the rest of the fireball. Observation ofmore » these neutrinos will shed more light on the nature of the GRB progenitors and also be a unique signature of physics beyond the standard model.« less
  • Swift observations revealed interesting but puzzling afterglow behaviors that demand a rethinking of the origins of GRBs and their afterglows. In general, the observed X-ray afterglows include the contributions from both the external shock emission and late 'internal' emission due to extended central engine activities. Recent observations and some theoretical efforts to interpret the data are highlighted. The high energy spectral regime will be fully revealed thanks to the launch and operation of several space and ground-based high energy detectors. Various physical processes that are predicted to contribute to high energy emission from GRBs are summarized, with comments on themore » most probable mechanisms of high energy emission in both the prompt and the afterglow phases.« less
  • The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope recently detected the most energetic gamma-ray burst so far, GRB 080916C, and reported its detailed temporal properties in an extremely broad spectral range: (1) the time-resolved spectra are well described by broken power-law forms over the energy range of 10 keV-10 GeV, (2) the high-energy emission (at epsilon>100 MeV) is delayed by approx5 s with respect to the epsilon approx< 1 MeV emission, and (3) the emission onset times shift toward later times in higher energy bands. We show that this behavior of the high-energy emission can be explained by a model in which themore » prompt emission consists of two components: one is the emission component peaking at epsilon approx 1 MeV due to the synchrotron-self-Compton radiation of electrons accelerated in the internal shock of the jet and the other is the component peaking at epsilon approx 100 MeV due to up-scattering of the photospheric X-ray emission of the expanding cocoon (i.e., the hot bubble produced by dissipation of the jet energy inside the progenitor star) off the same electrons in the jet. Based on this model, we derive some constraints on the radius of the progenitor star and the total energy and mass of the cocoon of this GRB, which may provide information on the structure of the progenitor star and the physical conditions of the jet propagating in the star. The up-scattered cocoon emission could be important for other Fermi GRBs as well. We discuss some predictions of this model, including a prompt bright optical emission and a soft X-ray excess.« less