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Title: SEARCH FOR PRECURSOR ERUPTIONS AMONG TYPE IIB SUPERNOVAE

Abstract

The progenitor stars of several Type IIb supernovae (SNe) show indications of extended hydrogen envelopes. These envelopes might be the outcome of luminous energetic pre-explosion events, so-called precursor eruptions. We use the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) pre-explosion observations of a sample of 27 nearby SNe IIb to look for such precursors during the final years prior to the SN explosion. No precursors are found when combining the observations in 15-day bins, and we calculate the absolute-magnitude-dependent upper limit on the precursor rate. At the 90% confidence level, SNe IIb have on average <0.86 precursors as bright as an absolute R-band magnitude of −14 in the final 3.5 years before the explosion and <0.56 events over the final year. In contrast, precursors among SNe IIn have a ≳5 times higher rate. The kinetic energy required to unbind a low-mass stellar envelope is comparable to the radiated energy of a few-weeks-long precursor that would be detectable for the closest SNe in our sample. Therefore, mass ejections, if they are common in such SNe, are radiatively inefficient or have durations longer than months. Indeed, when using 60-day bins, a faint precursor candidate is detected prior to SN 2012cs (∼2% false-alarm probability). We alsomore » report the detection of the progenitor of SN 2011dh that does not show detectable variability over the final two years before the explosion. The suggested progenitor of SN 2012P is still present, and hence is likely a compact star cluster or an unrelated object.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2]; ;  [3];  [4]; ;  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9]; ;  [10]
  1. Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel)
  2. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)
  3. Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
  4. School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)
  5. The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden)
  6. Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)
  7. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
  8. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93111 (United States)
  9. Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)
  10. Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, M/S 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22525346
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 811; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DETECTION; ERUPTION; HYDROGEN; KINETIC ENERGY; MASS TRANSFER; PRECURSOR; PROBABILITY; STAR CLUSTERS; STELLAR WINDS; SUPERNOVAE; TRANSIENTS

Citation Formats

Strotjohann, Nora L., Ofek, Eran O., Gal-Yam, Avishay, Yaron, Ofer, Sullivan, Mark, Kulkarni, Shrinivas R., Cao, Yi, Shaviv, Nir J., Fremling, Christoffer, Sollerman, Jesper, Kasliwal, Mansi M., Nugent, Peter E., Arcavi, Iair, Filippenko, Alexei V., Laher, Russ, and Surace, Jason. SEARCH FOR PRECURSOR ERUPTIONS AMONG TYPE IIB SUPERNOVAE. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/811/2/117.
Strotjohann, Nora L., Ofek, Eran O., Gal-Yam, Avishay, Yaron, Ofer, Sullivan, Mark, Kulkarni, Shrinivas R., Cao, Yi, Shaviv, Nir J., Fremling, Christoffer, Sollerman, Jesper, Kasliwal, Mansi M., Nugent, Peter E., Arcavi, Iair, Filippenko, Alexei V., Laher, Russ, & Surace, Jason. SEARCH FOR PRECURSOR ERUPTIONS AMONG TYPE IIB SUPERNOVAE. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/811/2/117.
Strotjohann, Nora L., Ofek, Eran O., Gal-Yam, Avishay, Yaron, Ofer, Sullivan, Mark, Kulkarni, Shrinivas R., Cao, Yi, Shaviv, Nir J., Fremling, Christoffer, Sollerman, Jesper, Kasliwal, Mansi M., Nugent, Peter E., Arcavi, Iair, Filippenko, Alexei V., Laher, Russ, and Surace, Jason. Thu . "SEARCH FOR PRECURSOR ERUPTIONS AMONG TYPE IIB SUPERNOVAE". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/811/2/117.
@article{osti_22525346,
title = {SEARCH FOR PRECURSOR ERUPTIONS AMONG TYPE IIB SUPERNOVAE},
author = {Strotjohann, Nora L. and Ofek, Eran O. and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Yaron, Ofer and Sullivan, Mark and Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. and Cao, Yi and Shaviv, Nir J. and Fremling, Christoffer and Sollerman, Jesper and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Nugent, Peter E. and Arcavi, Iair and Filippenko, Alexei V. and Laher, Russ and Surace, Jason},
abstractNote = {The progenitor stars of several Type IIb supernovae (SNe) show indications of extended hydrogen envelopes. These envelopes might be the outcome of luminous energetic pre-explosion events, so-called precursor eruptions. We use the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF) pre-explosion observations of a sample of 27 nearby SNe IIb to look for such precursors during the final years prior to the SN explosion. No precursors are found when combining the observations in 15-day bins, and we calculate the absolute-magnitude-dependent upper limit on the precursor rate. At the 90% confidence level, SNe IIb have on average <0.86 precursors as bright as an absolute R-band magnitude of −14 in the final 3.5 years before the explosion and <0.56 events over the final year. In contrast, precursors among SNe IIn have a ≳5 times higher rate. The kinetic energy required to unbind a low-mass stellar envelope is comparable to the radiated energy of a few-weeks-long precursor that would be detectable for the closest SNe in our sample. Therefore, mass ejections, if they are common in such SNe, are radiatively inefficient or have durations longer than months. Indeed, when using 60-day bins, a faint precursor candidate is detected prior to SN 2012cs (∼2% false-alarm probability). We also report the detection of the progenitor of SN 2011dh that does not show detectable variability over the final two years before the explosion. The suggested progenitor of SN 2012P is still present, and hence is likely a compact star cluster or an unrelated object.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/811/2/117},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
issn = {0004-637X},
number = 2,
volume = 811,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {10}
}