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Title: 3D ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT SIMULATIONS OF THE GAS CLOUD G2 BORN WITHIN THE DISKS OF YOUNG STARS IN THE GALACTIC CENTER

Abstract

The dusty, ionized gas cloud G2 is currently passing the massive black hole in the Galactic Center at a distance of roughly 2400 Schwarzschild radii. We explore the possibility of a starting point of the cloud within the disks of young stars. We make use of the large amount of new observations in order to put constraints on G2's origin. Interpreting the observations as a diffuse cloud of gas, we employ three-dimensional hydrodynamical adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulations with the PLUTO code and do a detailed comparison with observational data. The simulations presented in this work update our previously obtained results in multiple ways: (1) high resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamical AMR simulations are used, (2) the cloud follows the updated orbit based on the Brackett-γ data, (3) a detailed comparison to the observed high-quality position–velocity (PV) diagrams and the evolution of the total Brackett-γ luminosity is done. We concentrate on two unsolved problems of the diffuse cloud scenario: the unphysical formation epoch only shortly before the first detection and the too steep Brackett-γ light curve obtained in simulations, whereas the observations indicate a constant Brackett-γ luminosity between 2004 and 2013. For a given atmosphere and cloud mass, we find a consistentmore » model that can explain both, the observed Brackett-γ light curve and the PV diagrams of all epochs. Assuming initial pressure equilibrium with the atmosphere, this can be reached for a starting date earlier than roughly 1900, which is close to apo-center and well within the disks of young stars.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [2]
  1. Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Scheinerstraße 1, D-81679 München (Germany)
  2. Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Postfach 1312, Giessenbachstr., D-85741 Garching (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22525299
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 811; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ACCRETION DISKS; BLACK HOLES; CLOUDS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; COSMIC DUST; DIAGRAMS; GALAXIES; LUMINOSITY; MASS; MILKY WAY; ORBITS; PLUTO PLANET; SCHWARZSCHILD RADIUS; STARS; VISIBLE RADIATION

Citation Formats

Schartmann, M., Ballone, A., Burkert, A., Gillessen, S., Genzel, R., Pfuhl, O., Eisenhauer, F., Plewa, P. M., Ott, T., George, E. M., and Habibi, M., E-mail: mschartmann@swin.edu.au. 3D ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT SIMULATIONS OF THE GAS CLOUD G2 BORN WITHIN THE DISKS OF YOUNG STARS IN THE GALACTIC CENTER. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/811/2/155.
Schartmann, M., Ballone, A., Burkert, A., Gillessen, S., Genzel, R., Pfuhl, O., Eisenhauer, F., Plewa, P. M., Ott, T., George, E. M., & Habibi, M., E-mail: mschartmann@swin.edu.au. 3D ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT SIMULATIONS OF THE GAS CLOUD G2 BORN WITHIN THE DISKS OF YOUNG STARS IN THE GALACTIC CENTER. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/811/2/155.
Schartmann, M., Ballone, A., Burkert, A., Gillessen, S., Genzel, R., Pfuhl, O., Eisenhauer, F., Plewa, P. M., Ott, T., George, E. M., and Habibi, M., E-mail: mschartmann@swin.edu.au. Thu . "3D ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT SIMULATIONS OF THE GAS CLOUD G2 BORN WITHIN THE DISKS OF YOUNG STARS IN THE GALACTIC CENTER". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/811/2/155.
@article{osti_22525299,
title = {3D ADAPTIVE MESH REFINEMENT SIMULATIONS OF THE GAS CLOUD G2 BORN WITHIN THE DISKS OF YOUNG STARS IN THE GALACTIC CENTER},
author = {Schartmann, M. and Ballone, A. and Burkert, A. and Gillessen, S. and Genzel, R. and Pfuhl, O. and Eisenhauer, F. and Plewa, P. M. and Ott, T. and George, E. M. and Habibi, M., E-mail: mschartmann@swin.edu.au},
abstractNote = {The dusty, ionized gas cloud G2 is currently passing the massive black hole in the Galactic Center at a distance of roughly 2400 Schwarzschild radii. We explore the possibility of a starting point of the cloud within the disks of young stars. We make use of the large amount of new observations in order to put constraints on G2's origin. Interpreting the observations as a diffuse cloud of gas, we employ three-dimensional hydrodynamical adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) simulations with the PLUTO code and do a detailed comparison with observational data. The simulations presented in this work update our previously obtained results in multiple ways: (1) high resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamical AMR simulations are used, (2) the cloud follows the updated orbit based on the Brackett-γ data, (3) a detailed comparison to the observed high-quality position–velocity (PV) diagrams and the evolution of the total Brackett-γ luminosity is done. We concentrate on two unsolved problems of the diffuse cloud scenario: the unphysical formation epoch only shortly before the first detection and the too steep Brackett-γ light curve obtained in simulations, whereas the observations indicate a constant Brackett-γ luminosity between 2004 and 2013. For a given atmosphere and cloud mass, we find a consistent model that can explain both, the observed Brackett-γ light curve and the PV diagrams of all epochs. Assuming initial pressure equilibrium with the atmosphere, this can be reached for a starting date earlier than roughly 1900, which is close to apo-center and well within the disks of young stars.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/811/2/155},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
issn = {0004-637X},
number = 2,
volume = 811,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {10}
}