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Title: Z{sub 2} SIMP dark matter

Abstract

Dark matter with strong self-interactions provides a compelling solution to several small-scale structure puzzles. Under the assumption that the coupling between dark matter and the Standard Model particles is suppressed, such strongly interacting massive particles (SIMPs) allow for a successful thermal freeze-out through N-to-N' processes, where N dark matter particles annihilate to N' of them. In the most common scenarios, where dark matter stability is guaranteed by a Z{sub 2} symmetry, the seemingly leading annihilating channel, i.e. 3-to-2 process, is forbidden, so the 4-to-2 one dominate the production of the dark matter relic density. Moreover, cosmological observations require that the dark matter sector is colder than the thermal bath of Standard Model particles, a condition that can be dynamically generated via a small portal between dark matter and Standard Model particles, à la freeze-in. This scenario is exemplified in the context of the Singlet Scalar dark matter model.

Authors:
 [1];  [2]
  1. ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research, Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, São Paulo (Brazil)
  2. ICTP International Centre for Theoretical Physics Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22525093
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics; Journal Volume: 2016; Journal Issue: 01; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; COSMOLOGY; COUPLING; DENSITY; MATHEMATICAL SOLUTIONS; NONLUMINOUS MATTER; SCALARS; STABILITY; STANDARD MODEL; STRONG INTERACTIONS; SYMMETRY

Citation Formats

Bernal, Nicolás, and Chu, Xiaoyong, E-mail: nicolas@ift.unesp.br, E-mail: xchu@ictp.it. Z{sub 2} SIMP dark matter. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2016/01/006.
Bernal, Nicolás, & Chu, Xiaoyong, E-mail: nicolas@ift.unesp.br, E-mail: xchu@ictp.it. Z{sub 2} SIMP dark matter. United States. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2016/01/006.
Bernal, Nicolás, and Chu, Xiaoyong, E-mail: nicolas@ift.unesp.br, E-mail: xchu@ictp.it. 2016. "Z{sub 2} SIMP dark matter". United States. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2016/01/006.
@article{osti_22525093,
title = {Z{sub 2} SIMP dark matter},
author = {Bernal, Nicolás and Chu, Xiaoyong, E-mail: nicolas@ift.unesp.br, E-mail: xchu@ictp.it},
abstractNote = {Dark matter with strong self-interactions provides a compelling solution to several small-scale structure puzzles. Under the assumption that the coupling between dark matter and the Standard Model particles is suppressed, such strongly interacting massive particles (SIMPs) allow for a successful thermal freeze-out through N-to-N' processes, where N dark matter particles annihilate to N' of them. In the most common scenarios, where dark matter stability is guaranteed by a Z{sub 2} symmetry, the seemingly leading annihilating channel, i.e. 3-to-2 process, is forbidden, so the 4-to-2 one dominate the production of the dark matter relic density. Moreover, cosmological observations require that the dark matter sector is colder than the thermal bath of Standard Model particles, a condition that can be dynamically generated via a small portal between dark matter and Standard Model particles, à la freeze-in. This scenario is exemplified in the context of the Singlet Scalar dark matter model.},
doi = {10.1088/1475-7516/2016/01/006},
journal = {Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics},
number = 01,
volume = 2016,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 1
}
  • We give a review on the SIMP paradigm and discuss a consistent model for SIMP dark mesons in the context of a dark QCD with flavor symmetry. The Z′-portal interaction is introduced being compatible with stable dark mesons and is responsible for making the SIMP dark mesons remain in kinetic equilibrium with the SM during the freeze-out process. The SIMP parameter space of the Z′ gauge boson can be probed by future collider and direct detection experiments.
  • We propose and study a scalar extension of the Standard Model which respects a ℤ{sub 3} symmetry remnant of the spontaneous breaking of a global U(1){sub DM} symmetry. Consequently, this model has a natural dark matter candidate and a Goldstone boson in the physical spectrum. In addition, the Higgs boson properties are changed with respect to the Standard Model due to the mixing with a new particle. We explore regions in the parameter space taking into account bounds from the measured Higgs properties, dark matter direct detection as well as measurements of the effective number of neutrino species before recombination.more » The dark matter relic density is determined by three classes of processes: the usual self-annihilation, semi-annihilation and purely dark matter 3→2 processes. The latter has been subject of recent interest leading to the so-called ‘Strongly Interacting Massive Particle’ (SIMP) scenario. We show under which conditions our model can lead to a concrete realization of such scenario and study the possibility that the dark matter self-interactions could address the small scale structure problems. In particular, we find that in order for the SIMP scenario to work, the dark matter mass must be in the range 7−115 MeV, with the global symmetry energy breaking scale in the TeV range.« less
  • Dark matter with strong self-interactions provides a compelling solution to several small-scale structure puzzles. Under the assumption that the coupling between dark matter and the Standard Model particles is suppressed, such strongly interacting massive particles (SIMPs) allow for a successful thermal freeze-out through N-to-N{sup ′} processes, where N dark matter particles annihilate to N{sup ′} of them. In the most common scenarios, where dark matter stability is guaranteed by a ℤ{sub 2} symmetry, the seemingly leading annihilating channel, i.e. 3-to-2 process, is forbidden, so the 4-to-2 one dominate the production of the dark matter relic density. Moreover, cosmological observations requiremore » that the dark matter sector is colder than the thermal bath of Standard Model particles, a condition that can be dynamically generated via a small portal between dark matter and Standard Model particles, à la freeze-in. This scenario is exemplified in the context of the Singlet Scalar dark matter model.« less
  • We propose and study a scalar extension of the Standard Model which respects a Z{sub 3} symmetry remnant of the spontaneous breaking of a global U(1){sub DM} symmetry. Consequently, this model has a natural dark matter candidate and a Goldstone boson in the physical spectrum. In addition, the Higgs boson properties are changed with respect to the Standard Model due to the mixing with a new particle. We explore regions in the parameter space taking into account bounds from the measured Higgs properties, dark matter direct detection as well as measurements of the effective number of neutrino species before recombination.more » The dark matter relic density is determined by three classes of processes: the usual self-annihilation, semi-annihilation and purely dark matter 3 → 2 processes. The latter has been subject of recent interest leading to the so-called 'Strongly Interacting Massive Particle' (SIMP) scenario. We show under which conditions our model can lead to a concrete realization of such scenario and study the possibility that the dark matter self-interactions could address the small scale structure problems. In particular, we find that in order for the SIMP scenario to work, the dark matter mass must be in the range 7−115 MeV, with the global symmetry energy breaking scale in the TeV range.« less