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Title: CHANGING PHASES OF ALIEN WORLDS: PROBING ATMOSPHERES OF KEPLER PLANETS WITH HIGH-PRECISION PHOTOMETRY

Abstract

We present a comprehensive analysis of planetary phase variations, including possible planetary light offsets, using eighteen quarters of data from the Kepler space telescope. Our analysis found fourteen systems with significant detections in each of the phase curve components: planet’s phase function, secondary eclipse, Doppler boosting, and ellipsoidal variations. We model the full phase curve simultaneously, including primary and secondary transits, and derive albedos, day- and night-side temperatures and planet masses. Most planets manifest low optical geometric albedos (< 0.25), with the exception of Kepler-10b, Kepler-91b, and KOI-13b. We find that KOI-13b, with a small eccentricity of 0.0006 ± 0.0001, is the only planet for which an eccentric orbit is favored. We detect a third harmonic for HAT-P-7b for the first time, and confirm the third harmonic for KOI-13b reported in Esteves et al.: both could be due to their spin–orbit misalignments. For six planets, we report a planetary brightness peak offset from the substellar point: of those, the hottest two (Kepler-76b and HAT-P-7b) exhibit pre-eclipse shifts or on the evening-side, while the cooler four (Kepler-7b, Kepler-8b, Kepler-12b, and Kepler-41b) peak post-eclipse or on the morning-side. Our findings dramatically increase the number of Kepler planets with detected planetary light offsets,more » and provide the first evidence in the Kepler data for a correlation between the peak offset direction and the planet’s temperature. Such a correlation could arise if thermal emission dominates light from hotter planets that harbor hot spots shifted toward the evening-side, as theoretically predicted, while reflected light dominates cooler planets with clouds on the planet’s morning-side.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]
  1. Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada)
  2. Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, Ontario L3T 3R1 (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22522434
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 804; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ALBEDO; BRIGHTNESS; CLOUDS; CORRELATIONS; DIAGRAMS; EARTH PLANET; ECLIPSE; HOT SPOTS; MASS; ORBITS; PHOTOMETRY; PROBES; SATELLITE ATMOSPHERES; SATELLITES; SPACE; SPIN; STARS; TELESCOPES; VARIATIONS; VISIBLE RADIATION

Citation Formats

Esteves, Lisa J., Mooij, Ernst J. W. De, and Jayawardhana, Ray, E-mail: esteves@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: demooij@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: rayjay@yorku.ca. CHANGING PHASES OF ALIEN WORLDS: PROBING ATMOSPHERES OF KEPLER PLANETS WITH HIGH-PRECISION PHOTOMETRY. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/804/2/150.
Esteves, Lisa J., Mooij, Ernst J. W. De, & Jayawardhana, Ray, E-mail: esteves@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: demooij@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: rayjay@yorku.ca. CHANGING PHASES OF ALIEN WORLDS: PROBING ATMOSPHERES OF KEPLER PLANETS WITH HIGH-PRECISION PHOTOMETRY. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/804/2/150.
Esteves, Lisa J., Mooij, Ernst J. W. De, and Jayawardhana, Ray, E-mail: esteves@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: demooij@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: rayjay@yorku.ca. Sun . "CHANGING PHASES OF ALIEN WORLDS: PROBING ATMOSPHERES OF KEPLER PLANETS WITH HIGH-PRECISION PHOTOMETRY". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/804/2/150.
@article{osti_22522434,
title = {CHANGING PHASES OF ALIEN WORLDS: PROBING ATMOSPHERES OF KEPLER PLANETS WITH HIGH-PRECISION PHOTOMETRY},
author = {Esteves, Lisa J. and Mooij, Ernst J. W. De and Jayawardhana, Ray, E-mail: esteves@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: demooij@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: rayjay@yorku.ca},
abstractNote = {We present a comprehensive analysis of planetary phase variations, including possible planetary light offsets, using eighteen quarters of data from the Kepler space telescope. Our analysis found fourteen systems with significant detections in each of the phase curve components: planet’s phase function, secondary eclipse, Doppler boosting, and ellipsoidal variations. We model the full phase curve simultaneously, including primary and secondary transits, and derive albedos, day- and night-side temperatures and planet masses. Most planets manifest low optical geometric albedos (< 0.25), with the exception of Kepler-10b, Kepler-91b, and KOI-13b. We find that KOI-13b, with a small eccentricity of 0.0006 ± 0.0001, is the only planet for which an eccentric orbit is favored. We detect a third harmonic for HAT-P-7b for the first time, and confirm the third harmonic for KOI-13b reported in Esteves et al.: both could be due to their spin–orbit misalignments. For six planets, we report a planetary brightness peak offset from the substellar point: of those, the hottest two (Kepler-76b and HAT-P-7b) exhibit pre-eclipse shifts or on the evening-side, while the cooler four (Kepler-7b, Kepler-8b, Kepler-12b, and Kepler-41b) peak post-eclipse or on the morning-side. Our findings dramatically increase the number of Kepler planets with detected planetary light offsets, and provide the first evidence in the Kepler data for a correlation between the peak offset direction and the planet’s temperature. Such a correlation could arise if thermal emission dominates light from hotter planets that harbor hot spots shifted toward the evening-side, as theoretically predicted, while reflected light dominates cooler planets with clouds on the planet’s morning-side.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/804/2/150},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
issn = {0004-637X},
number = 2,
volume = 804,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {5}
}