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Title: GOODS-HERSCHEL: STAR FORMATION, DUST ATTENUATION, AND THE FIR–RADIO CORRELATION ON THE MAIN SEQUENCE OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES UP TO z ≃ 4

Abstract

We use deep panchromatic data sets in the GOODS-N field, from GALEX to the deepest Herschel far-infrared (FIR) and VLA radio continuum imaging, to explore the evolution of star-formation activity and dust attenuation properties of star-forming galaxies to z ≃ 4, using mass-complete samples. Our main results can be summarized as follows: (i) the slope of the star-formation rate–M{sub *} correlation is consistent with being constant ≃0.8 up to z ≃ 1.5, while its normalization keeps increasing with redshift; (ii) for the first time we are able to explore the FIR–radio correlation for a mass-selected sample of star-forming galaxies: the correlation does not evolve up to z ≃ 4; (iii) we confirm that galaxy stellar mass is a robust proxy for UV dust attenuation in star-forming galaxies, with more massive galaxies being more dust attenuated. Strikingly, we find that this attenuation relation evolves very weakly with redshift, with the amount of dust attenuation increasing by less than 0.3 mag over the redshift range [0.5–4] for a fixed stellar mass; (iv) the correlation between dust attenuation and the UV spectral slope evolves with redshift, with the median UV slope becoming bluer with redshift. By z ≃ 3, typical UV slopes aremore » inconsistent, given the measured dust attenuations, with the predictions of commonly used empirical laws. (v) Finally, building on existing results, we show that gas reddening is marginally larger (by a factor of around 1.3) than the stellar reddening at all redshifts probed. Our results support a scenario where the ISM conditions of typical star-forming galaxies evolve with redshift, such that at z ≥ 1.5 Main Sequence galaxies have ISM conditions moving closer to those of local starbursts.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3]; ;  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8] more »; « less
  1. Laboratoire AIM-Paris-Saclay, CEA/DSM/Irfu—CNRS—Université Paris Diderot, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
  2. National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)
  3. Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR7326, F-13388, Marseille (France)
  4. Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, 15236, Penteli (Greece)
  5. European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
  6. Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, CNRS, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75005 Paris (France)
  7. Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)
  8. Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, HI-96822 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22522184
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 807; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ATTENUATION; CORRELATIONS; FAR INFRARED RADIATION; GALAXIES; MASS; PROBES; RED SHIFT; STAR EVOLUTION; STARS; ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA

Citation Formats

Pannella, M., Elbaz, D., Daddi, E., Hwang, H. S., Schreiber, C., Strazzullo, V., Aussel, H., Bethermin, M., Cibinel, A., Juneau, S., Floc’h, E. Le, Leiton, R., Dickinson, M., Buat, V., Charmandaris, V., Magdis, G., Ivison, R. J., Borgne, D. Le, Lin, L., Morrison, G. E., and and others. GOODS-HERSCHEL: STAR FORMATION, DUST ATTENUATION, AND THE FIR–RADIO CORRELATION ON THE MAIN SEQUENCE OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES UP TO z ≃ 4. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/807/2/141.
Pannella, M., Elbaz, D., Daddi, E., Hwang, H. S., Schreiber, C., Strazzullo, V., Aussel, H., Bethermin, M., Cibinel, A., Juneau, S., Floc’h, E. Le, Leiton, R., Dickinson, M., Buat, V., Charmandaris, V., Magdis, G., Ivison, R. J., Borgne, D. Le, Lin, L., Morrison, G. E., & and others. GOODS-HERSCHEL: STAR FORMATION, DUST ATTENUATION, AND THE FIR–RADIO CORRELATION ON THE MAIN SEQUENCE OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES UP TO z ≃ 4. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/807/2/141.
Pannella, M., Elbaz, D., Daddi, E., Hwang, H. S., Schreiber, C., Strazzullo, V., Aussel, H., Bethermin, M., Cibinel, A., Juneau, S., Floc’h, E. Le, Leiton, R., Dickinson, M., Buat, V., Charmandaris, V., Magdis, G., Ivison, R. J., Borgne, D. Le, Lin, L., Morrison, G. E., and and others. 2015. "GOODS-HERSCHEL: STAR FORMATION, DUST ATTENUATION, AND THE FIR–RADIO CORRELATION ON THE MAIN SEQUENCE OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES UP TO z ≃ 4". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/807/2/141.
@article{osti_22522184,
title = {GOODS-HERSCHEL: STAR FORMATION, DUST ATTENUATION, AND THE FIR–RADIO CORRELATION ON THE MAIN SEQUENCE OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES UP TO z ≃ 4},
author = {Pannella, M. and Elbaz, D. and Daddi, E. and Hwang, H. S. and Schreiber, C. and Strazzullo, V. and Aussel, H. and Bethermin, M. and Cibinel, A. and Juneau, S. and Floc’h, E. Le and Leiton, R. and Dickinson, M. and Buat, V. and Charmandaris, V. and Magdis, G. and Ivison, R. J. and Borgne, D. Le and Lin, L. and Morrison, G. E. and and others},
abstractNote = {We use deep panchromatic data sets in the GOODS-N field, from GALEX to the deepest Herschel far-infrared (FIR) and VLA radio continuum imaging, to explore the evolution of star-formation activity and dust attenuation properties of star-forming galaxies to z ≃ 4, using mass-complete samples. Our main results can be summarized as follows: (i) the slope of the star-formation rate–M{sub *} correlation is consistent with being constant ≃0.8 up to z ≃ 1.5, while its normalization keeps increasing with redshift; (ii) for the first time we are able to explore the FIR–radio correlation for a mass-selected sample of star-forming galaxies: the correlation does not evolve up to z ≃ 4; (iii) we confirm that galaxy stellar mass is a robust proxy for UV dust attenuation in star-forming galaxies, with more massive galaxies being more dust attenuated. Strikingly, we find that this attenuation relation evolves very weakly with redshift, with the amount of dust attenuation increasing by less than 0.3 mag over the redshift range [0.5–4] for a fixed stellar mass; (iv) the correlation between dust attenuation and the UV spectral slope evolves with redshift, with the median UV slope becoming bluer with redshift. By z ≃ 3, typical UV slopes are inconsistent, given the measured dust attenuations, with the predictions of commonly used empirical laws. (v) Finally, building on existing results, we show that gas reddening is marginally larger (by a factor of around 1.3) than the stellar reddening at all redshifts probed. Our results support a scenario where the ISM conditions of typical star-forming galaxies evolve with redshift, such that at z ≥ 1.5 Main Sequence galaxies have ISM conditions moving closer to those of local starbursts.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/807/2/141},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 807,
place = {United States},
year = 2015,
month = 7
}
  • We take advantage of the sensitivity and resolution of the Herschel Space Observatory at 100 and 160 {mu}m to directly image the thermal dust emission and investigate the infrared luminosities (L{sub IR}) and dust obscuration of typical star-forming (L*) galaxies at high redshift. Our sample consists of 146 UV-selected galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts 1.5 {<=} z{sub spec} < 2.6 in the GOODS-North field. Supplemented with deep Very Large Array and Spitzer imaging, we construct median stacks at the positions of these galaxies at 24, 100, and 160 {mu}m, and 1.4 GHz. The comparison between these stacked fluxes and a varietymore » of dust templates and calibrations implies that typical star-forming galaxies with UV luminosities L{sub UV} {approx}> 10{sup 10} L{sub Sun} at z {approx} 2 are luminous infrared galaxies with a median L{sub IR} = (2.2 {+-} 0.3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun }. Their median ratio of L{sub IR} to rest-frame 8 {mu}m luminosity (L{sub 8}) is L{sub IR}/L{sub 8} = 8.9 {+-} 1.3 and is Almost-Equal-To 80% larger than that found for most star-forming galaxies at z {approx}< 2. This apparent redshift evolution in the L{sub IR}/L{sub 8} ratio may be tied to the trend of larger infrared luminosity surface density for z {approx}> 2 galaxies relative to those at lower redshift. Typical galaxies at 1.5 {<=} z < 2.6 have a median dust obscuration L{sub IR}/L{sub UV} = 7.1 {+-} 1.1, which corresponds to a dust correction factor, required to recover the bolometric star formation rate (SFR) from the unobscured UV SFR, of 5.2 {+-} 0.6. This result is similar to that inferred from previous investigations of the UV, H{alpha}, 24 {mu}m, radio, and X-ray properties of the same galaxies studied here. Stacking in bins of UV slope ({beta}) implies that L* galaxies with redder spectral slopes are also dustier and that the correlation between {beta} and dustiness is similar to that found for local starburst galaxies. Hence, the rest-frame {approx_equal} 30 and 50 {mu}m fluxes validate on average the use of the local UV attenuation curve to recover the dust attenuation of typical star-forming galaxies at high redshift. In the simplest interpretation, the agreement between the local and high-redshift UV attenuation curves suggests a similarity in the dust production and stellar and dust geometries of starburst galaxies over the last 10 billion years.« less
  • The nature of dust in distant galaxies is not well understood, and until recently few direct dust measurements have been possible. We investigate dust in distant star-forming galaxies using near-infrared grism spectra of the 3D-HST survey combined with archival multi-wavelength photometry. These data allow us to make a direct comparison between dust around star-forming regions (A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II}) and the integrated dust content (A {sub V,} {sub star}). We select a sample of 163 galaxies between 1.36 ≤ z ≤ 1.5 with Hα signal-to-noise ratio ≥5 and measure Balmer decrements from stacked spectra to calculate Amore » {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II}. First, we stack spectra in bins of A {sub V,} {sub star}, and find that A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II} = 1.86 A {sub V,} {sub star}, with a significance of σ = 1.7. Our result is consistent with the two-component dust model, in which galaxies contain both diffuse and stellar birth cloud dust. Next, we stack spectra in bins of specific star formation rate (log SSFR), star formation rate (log SFR), and stellar mass (log M {sub *}). We find that on average A {sub V,} {sub H} {sub II} increases with SFR and mass, but decreases with increasing SSFR. Interestingly, the data hint that the amount of extra attenuation decreases with increasing SSFR. This trend is expected from the two-component model, as the extra attenuation will increase once older stars outside the star-forming regions become more dominant in the galaxy spectrum. Finally, using Balmer decrements we derive dust-corrected Hα SFRs, and find that stellar population modeling produces incorrect SFRs if rapidly declining star formation histories are included in the explored parameter space.« less
  • We have compiled a large sample of 151 high-redshift (z = 0.5-4) galaxies selected at 24 {mu}m (S {sub 24} > 100 {mu}Jy) in the GOODS-N and ECDFS fields for which we have deep Spitzer IRS spectroscopy, allowing us to decompose the mid-infrared spectrum into contributions from star formation and activity in the galactic nuclei. In addition, we have a wealth of photometric data from Spitzer IRAC/MIPS and Herschel PACS/SPIRE. We explore how effective different infrared color combinations are at separating our mid-IR spectroscopically determined active galactic nuclei from our star-forming galaxies. We look in depth at existing IRAC colormore » diagnostics, and we explore new color-color diagnostics combining mid-IR, far-IR, and near-IR photometry, since these combinations provide the most detail about the shape of a source's IR spectrum. An added benefit of using a color that combines far-IR and mid-IR photometry is that it is indicative of the power source driving the IR luminosity. For our data set, the optimal color selections are S {sub 250}/S {sub 24} versus S {sub 8}/S {sub 3.6} and S {sub 100}/S {sub 24} versus S {sub 8}/S {sub 3.6}; both diagnostics have {approx}10% contamination rate in the regions occupied primarily by star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei, respectively. Based on the low contamination rate, these two new IR color-color diagnostics are ideal for estimating both the mid-IR power source of a galaxy when spectroscopy is unavailable and the dominant power source contributing to the IR luminosity. In the absence of far-IR data, we present color diagnostics using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-IR bands which can efficiently select out high-z (z {approx} 2) star-forming galaxies.« less
  • We report the Herschel/SPIRE detection of dust emission arising from UV-luminous (L {approx}> L*) star-forming galaxies at 3.3 {approx}< z {approx}< 4.3. Our sample of 1913 Lyman break galaxy (LBG) candidates is selected over an area of 5.3 deg{sup 2} in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. This is one of the largest samples of UV-luminous galaxies at this epoch and enables an investigation of the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function. We divide our sample into three luminosity bins and stack the Herschel/SPIRE data to measure the average spectral energy distribution (SED) of LBGs atmore » far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths. We find that these galaxies have average IR luminosities of (3-5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} L{sub Sun} and 60%-70% of their star formation obscured by dust. The FIR SEDs peak at {lambda}{sub rest} {approx}> 100 {mu}m suggesting dust temperatures (T{sub d} = 27-30 K) significantly colder than that of local galaxies of comparable IR luminosities. The observed IR-to-UV luminosity ratio (IRX {identical_to} L{sub IR}/L{sub UV}) is low ( Almost-Equal-To 3-4) compared with that observed for z Almost-Equal-To 2 LBGs (IRX{sub z{approx}2} Almost-Equal-To 7.1 {+-} 1.1). The correlation between the slope of the UV continuum and IRX for galaxies in the two lower luminosity bins suggests dust properties similar to those of local starburst galaxies. However, the galaxies in the highest luminosity bin appear to deviate from the local relation, suggesting that their dust properties may differ from those of their lower-luminosity and low-redshift counterparts. We speculate that the most UV-luminous galaxies at this epoch are being observed in a short-lived and young evolutionary phase.« less
  • We present the results from our narrow-band imaging surveys of Hα emitters (HAEs) at z = 2.2 and z = 2.5 in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep survey Field with near-infrared camera MOIRCS on the Subaru Telescope. We have constructed a clean sample of 63 star-forming galaxies at z = 2.2 and 46 at z = 2.5. For 12 (or ∼92%) out of 13 HAEs at z = 2.2, their Hα emission lines have been successfully detected by the spectroscopy. While about 42% of the red, massive HAEs with M {sub *} > 10{sup 10.8} M {sub ☉} contain active galactic nucleimore » (AGNs), most of the blue, less massive ones are likely to be star-forming galaxies. This suggests that the AGN may play an important role in galaxy evolution at the late stage of truncation. For the HAEs excluding possible AGNs, we estimate the gas-phase metallicities on the basis of [N II]/Hα ratios, and find that the metallicities of the Hα selected galaxies at z = 2.2 are lower than those of local star-forming galaxies at fixed stellar mass, as shown by previous studies. Moreover, we present and discuss the so-called main sequence of star-forming galaxies at z > 2 based on our unique sample of HAEs. By correlating the level of dust extinction with the location on the main sequence, we find that there are two kinds/modes of dusty star-forming galaxies: starbursting galaxies and metal-rich normal star-forming galaxies.« less