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Title: THE MASS OF Kepler-93b AND THE COMPOSITION OF TERRESTRIAL PLANETS

Abstract

Kepler-93b is a 1.478 ± 0.019 R {sub ⊕} planet with a 4.7 day period around a bright (V = 10.2), astroseismically characterized host star with a mass of 0.911 ± 0.033 M {sub ☉} and a radius of 0.919 ± 0.011 R {sub ☉}. Based on 86 radial velocity observations obtained with the HARPS-N spectrograph on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo and 32 archival Keck/HIRES observations, we present a precise mass estimate of 4.02 ± 0.68 M {sub ⊕}. The corresponding high density of 6.88 ± 1.18 g cm{sup –3} is consistent with a rocky composition of primarily iron and magnesium silicate. We compare Kepler-93b to other dense planets with well-constrained parameters and find that between 1 and 6 M {sub ⊕}, all dense planets including the Earth and Venus are well-described by the same fixed ratio of iron to magnesium silicate. There are as of yet no examples of such planets with masses >6 M {sub ⊕}. All known planets in this mass regime have lower densities requiring significant fractions of volatiles or H/He gas. We also constrain the mass and period of the outer companion in the Kepler-93 system from the long-term radial velocity trend and archival adaptivemore » optics images. As the sample of dense planets with well-constrained masses and radii continues to grow, we will be able to test whether the fixed compositional model found for the seven dense planets considered in this paper extends to the full population of 1-6 M {sub ⊕} planets.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1]; ; ;  [2]; ;  [3]; ; ; ;  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7] more »; « less
  1. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  2. Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, 51 ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland)
  3. SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)
  4. INAF - Fundación Galileo Galilei, Rambla José Ana Fernandez Pérez 7, E-38712 Breña Baja (Spain)
  5. INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90124 Palermo (Italy)
  6. INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, via Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy)
  7. Centro de Astrofìsica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22522120
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 800; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DENSITY; IMAGES; IRON; MAGNESIUM SILICATES; MASS; OPTICS; RADIAL VELOCITY; SATELLITES; STARS; VENUS PLANET; VOLATILITY

Citation Formats

Dressing, Courtney D., Charbonneau, David, Dumusque, Xavier, Gettel, Sara, Latham, David W., Buchhave, Lars A., Johnson, John Asher, Lopez-Morales, Mercedes, Pepe, Francesco, Udry, Stéphane, Lovis, Christophe, Collier Cameron, Andrew, Haywood, Raphaëlle D., Molinari, Emilio, Cosentino, Rosario, Fiorenzano, Aldo F. M., Harutyunyan, Avet, Affer, Laura, Bonomo, Aldo S., Figueira, Pedro, E-mail: cdressing@cfa.harvard.edu, and and others. THE MASS OF Kepler-93b AND THE COMPOSITION OF TERRESTRIAL PLANETS. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/800/2/135.
Dressing, Courtney D., Charbonneau, David, Dumusque, Xavier, Gettel, Sara, Latham, David W., Buchhave, Lars A., Johnson, John Asher, Lopez-Morales, Mercedes, Pepe, Francesco, Udry, Stéphane, Lovis, Christophe, Collier Cameron, Andrew, Haywood, Raphaëlle D., Molinari, Emilio, Cosentino, Rosario, Fiorenzano, Aldo F. M., Harutyunyan, Avet, Affer, Laura, Bonomo, Aldo S., Figueira, Pedro, E-mail: cdressing@cfa.harvard.edu, & and others. THE MASS OF Kepler-93b AND THE COMPOSITION OF TERRESTRIAL PLANETS. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/800/2/135.
Dressing, Courtney D., Charbonneau, David, Dumusque, Xavier, Gettel, Sara, Latham, David W., Buchhave, Lars A., Johnson, John Asher, Lopez-Morales, Mercedes, Pepe, Francesco, Udry, Stéphane, Lovis, Christophe, Collier Cameron, Andrew, Haywood, Raphaëlle D., Molinari, Emilio, Cosentino, Rosario, Fiorenzano, Aldo F. M., Harutyunyan, Avet, Affer, Laura, Bonomo, Aldo S., Figueira, Pedro, E-mail: cdressing@cfa.harvard.edu, and and others. Fri . "THE MASS OF Kepler-93b AND THE COMPOSITION OF TERRESTRIAL PLANETS". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/800/2/135.
@article{osti_22522120,
title = {THE MASS OF Kepler-93b AND THE COMPOSITION OF TERRESTRIAL PLANETS},
author = {Dressing, Courtney D. and Charbonneau, David and Dumusque, Xavier and Gettel, Sara and Latham, David W. and Buchhave, Lars A. and Johnson, John Asher and Lopez-Morales, Mercedes and Pepe, Francesco and Udry, Stéphane and Lovis, Christophe and Collier Cameron, Andrew and Haywood, Raphaëlle D. and Molinari, Emilio and Cosentino, Rosario and Fiorenzano, Aldo F. M. and Harutyunyan, Avet and Affer, Laura and Bonomo, Aldo S. and Figueira, Pedro, E-mail: cdressing@cfa.harvard.edu and and others},
abstractNote = {Kepler-93b is a 1.478 ± 0.019 R {sub ⊕} planet with a 4.7 day period around a bright (V = 10.2), astroseismically characterized host star with a mass of 0.911 ± 0.033 M {sub ☉} and a radius of 0.919 ± 0.011 R {sub ☉}. Based on 86 radial velocity observations obtained with the HARPS-N spectrograph on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo and 32 archival Keck/HIRES observations, we present a precise mass estimate of 4.02 ± 0.68 M {sub ⊕}. The corresponding high density of 6.88 ± 1.18 g cm{sup –3} is consistent with a rocky composition of primarily iron and magnesium silicate. We compare Kepler-93b to other dense planets with well-constrained parameters and find that between 1 and 6 M {sub ⊕}, all dense planets including the Earth and Venus are well-described by the same fixed ratio of iron to magnesium silicate. There are as of yet no examples of such planets with masses >6 M {sub ⊕}. All known planets in this mass regime have lower densities requiring significant fractions of volatiles or H/He gas. We also constrain the mass and period of the outer companion in the Kepler-93 system from the long-term radial velocity trend and archival adaptive optics images. As the sample of dense planets with well-constrained masses and radii continues to grow, we will be able to test whether the fixed compositional model found for the seven dense planets considered in this paper extends to the full population of 1-6 M {sub ⊕} planets.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/800/2/135},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 800,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Feb 20 00:00:00 EST 2015},
month = {Fri Feb 20 00:00:00 EST 2015}
}