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Title: VALIDATION OF 12 SMALL KEPLER TRANSITING PLANETS IN THE HABITABLE ZONE

Abstract

We present an investigation of 12 candidate transiting planets from Kepler with orbital periods ranging from 34 to 207 days, selected from initial indications that they are small and potentially in the habitable zone (HZ) of their parent stars. Few of these objects are known. The expected Doppler signals are too small to confirm them by demonstrating that their masses are in the planetary regime. Here we verify their planetary nature by validating them statistically using the BLENDER technique, which simulates large numbers of false positives and compares the resulting light curves with the Kepler photometry. This analysis was supplemented with new follow-up observations (high-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, adaptive optics imaging, and speckle interferometry), as well as an analysis of the flux centroids. For 11 of them (KOI-0571.05, 1422.04, 1422.05, 2529.02, 3255.01, 3284.01, 4005.01, 4087.01, 4622.01, 4742.01, and 4745.01) we show that the likelihood they are true planets is far greater than that of a false positive, to a confidence level of 99.73% (3σ) or higher. For KOI-4427.01 the confidence level is about 99.2% (2.6σ). With our accurate characterization of the GKM host stars, the derived planetary radii range from 1.1 to 2.7 R {sub ⊕}. All 12 objects aremore » confirmed to be in the HZ, and nine are small enough to be rocky. Excluding three of them that have been previously validated by others, our study doubles the number of known rocky planets in the HZ. KOI-3284.01 (Kepler-438b) and KOI-4742.01 (Kepler-442b) are the planets most similar to the Earth discovered to date when considering their size and incident flux jointly.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]; ;  [2];  [3]; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [4];  [5]; ;  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9] more »; « less
  1. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  2. SETI Institute/NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)
  3. University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)
  4. NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)
  5. NASA Exoplanet Science Institute/Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
  6. Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
  7. Department of Astronomy, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)
  8. University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)
  9. National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22522106
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 800; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DIAGRAMS; INFRARED SPECTRA; INTERFEROMETRY; MASS; PHOTOMETRY; PLANETS; RESOLUTION; SIGNALS; STARS; VALIDATION; VISIBLE RADIATION; ZONES

Citation Formats

Torres, Guillermo, Kipping, David M., Fressin, Francois, Newton, Elisabeth R., Caldwell, Douglas A., Twicken, Joseph D., Ballard, Sarah, Batalha, Natalie M., Bryson, Stephen T., Henze, Christopher E., Howell, Steve B., Jenkins, Jon M., Barclay, Thomas, Borucki, William J., Ciardi, David R., Isaacson, Howard T., Petigura, Erik A., Muirhead, Philip S., Crepp, Justin R., Everett, Mark E., E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu, and and others. VALIDATION OF 12 SMALL KEPLER TRANSITING PLANETS IN THE HABITABLE ZONE. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/800/2/99.
Torres, Guillermo, Kipping, David M., Fressin, Francois, Newton, Elisabeth R., Caldwell, Douglas A., Twicken, Joseph D., Ballard, Sarah, Batalha, Natalie M., Bryson, Stephen T., Henze, Christopher E., Howell, Steve B., Jenkins, Jon M., Barclay, Thomas, Borucki, William J., Ciardi, David R., Isaacson, Howard T., Petigura, Erik A., Muirhead, Philip S., Crepp, Justin R., Everett, Mark E., E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu, & and others. VALIDATION OF 12 SMALL KEPLER TRANSITING PLANETS IN THE HABITABLE ZONE. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/800/2/99.
Torres, Guillermo, Kipping, David M., Fressin, Francois, Newton, Elisabeth R., Caldwell, Douglas A., Twicken, Joseph D., Ballard, Sarah, Batalha, Natalie M., Bryson, Stephen T., Henze, Christopher E., Howell, Steve B., Jenkins, Jon M., Barclay, Thomas, Borucki, William J., Ciardi, David R., Isaacson, Howard T., Petigura, Erik A., Muirhead, Philip S., Crepp, Justin R., Everett, Mark E., E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu, and and others. Fri . "VALIDATION OF 12 SMALL KEPLER TRANSITING PLANETS IN THE HABITABLE ZONE". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/800/2/99.
@article{osti_22522106,
title = {VALIDATION OF 12 SMALL KEPLER TRANSITING PLANETS IN THE HABITABLE ZONE},
author = {Torres, Guillermo and Kipping, David M. and Fressin, Francois and Newton, Elisabeth R. and Caldwell, Douglas A. and Twicken, Joseph D. and Ballard, Sarah and Batalha, Natalie M. and Bryson, Stephen T. and Henze, Christopher E. and Howell, Steve B. and Jenkins, Jon M. and Barclay, Thomas and Borucki, William J. and Ciardi, David R. and Isaacson, Howard T. and Petigura, Erik A. and Muirhead, Philip S. and Crepp, Justin R. and Everett, Mark E., E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu and and others},
abstractNote = {We present an investigation of 12 candidate transiting planets from Kepler with orbital periods ranging from 34 to 207 days, selected from initial indications that they are small and potentially in the habitable zone (HZ) of their parent stars. Few of these objects are known. The expected Doppler signals are too small to confirm them by demonstrating that their masses are in the planetary regime. Here we verify their planetary nature by validating them statistically using the BLENDER technique, which simulates large numbers of false positives and compares the resulting light curves with the Kepler photometry. This analysis was supplemented with new follow-up observations (high-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, adaptive optics imaging, and speckle interferometry), as well as an analysis of the flux centroids. For 11 of them (KOI-0571.05, 1422.04, 1422.05, 2529.02, 3255.01, 3284.01, 4005.01, 4087.01, 4622.01, 4742.01, and 4745.01) we show that the likelihood they are true planets is far greater than that of a false positive, to a confidence level of 99.73% (3σ) or higher. For KOI-4427.01 the confidence level is about 99.2% (2.6σ). With our accurate characterization of the GKM host stars, the derived planetary radii range from 1.1 to 2.7 R {sub ⊕}. All 12 objects are confirmed to be in the HZ, and nine are small enough to be rocky. Excluding three of them that have been previously validated by others, our study doubles the number of known rocky planets in the HZ. KOI-3284.01 (Kepler-438b) and KOI-4742.01 (Kepler-442b) are the planets most similar to the Earth discovered to date when considering their size and incident flux jointly.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/800/2/99},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 800,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Feb 20 00:00:00 EST 2015},
month = {Fri Feb 20 00:00:00 EST 2015}
}