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Title: THREE-DIMENSIONAL ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF WARM AND HOT JUPITERS: EFFECTS OF ORBITAL DISTANCE, ROTATION PERIOD, AND NONSYNCHRONOUS ROTATION

Abstract

Efforts to characterize extrasolar giant planet (EGP) atmospheres have so far emphasized planets within 0.05 AU of their stars. Despite this focus, known EGPs populate a continuum of orbital separations from canonical hot Jupiter values (0.03–0.05 AU) out to 1 AU and beyond. Unlike typical hot Jupiters, these more distant EGPs will not generally be synchronously rotating. In anticipation of observations of this population, we here present three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models exploring the dynamics that emerge over a broad range of rotation rates and incident stellar fluxes appropriate for warm and hot Jupiters. We find that the circulation resides in one of two basic regimes. On typical hot Jupiters, the strong day–night heating contrast leads to a broad, fast superrotating (eastward) equatorial jet and large day–night temperature differences. At faster rotation rates and lower incident fluxes, however, the day–night heating gradient becomes less important, and baroclinic instabilities emerge as a dominant player, leading to eastward jets in the midlatitudes, minimal temperature variations in longitude, and, often, weak winds at the equator. Our most rapidly rotating and least irradiated models exhibit similarities to Jupiter and Saturn, illuminating the dynamical continuum between hot Jupiters and the weakly irradiated giant planets of ourmore » own solar system. We present infrared (IR) light curves and spectra of these models, which depend significantly on incident flux and rotation rate. This provides a way to identify the regime transition in future observations. In some cases, IR light curves can provide constraints on the rotation rate of nonsynchronously rotating planets.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)
  2. Department of Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)
  3. Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22522073
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 801; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION; DIAGRAMS; DISTANCE; HEATING; INFRARED SPECTRA; IRRADIATION; JETS; JUPITER PLANET; ROTATION; SATELLITE ATMOSPHERES; SATELLITES; SATURN PLANET; SOLAR SYSTEM; STARS; STELLAR WINDS; VISIBLE RADIATION

Citation Formats

Showman, Adam P., Lewis, Nikole K., and Fortney, Jonathan J., E-mail: showman@lpl.arizona.edu. THREE-DIMENSIONAL ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF WARM AND HOT JUPITERS: EFFECTS OF ORBITAL DISTANCE, ROTATION PERIOD, AND NONSYNCHRONOUS ROTATION. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/801/2/95.
Showman, Adam P., Lewis, Nikole K., & Fortney, Jonathan J., E-mail: showman@lpl.arizona.edu. THREE-DIMENSIONAL ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF WARM AND HOT JUPITERS: EFFECTS OF ORBITAL DISTANCE, ROTATION PERIOD, AND NONSYNCHRONOUS ROTATION. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/801/2/95.
Showman, Adam P., Lewis, Nikole K., and Fortney, Jonathan J., E-mail: showman@lpl.arizona.edu. Tue . "THREE-DIMENSIONAL ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF WARM AND HOT JUPITERS: EFFECTS OF ORBITAL DISTANCE, ROTATION PERIOD, AND NONSYNCHRONOUS ROTATION". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/801/2/95.
@article{osti_22522073,
title = {THREE-DIMENSIONAL ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF WARM AND HOT JUPITERS: EFFECTS OF ORBITAL DISTANCE, ROTATION PERIOD, AND NONSYNCHRONOUS ROTATION},
author = {Showman, Adam P. and Lewis, Nikole K. and Fortney, Jonathan J., E-mail: showman@lpl.arizona.edu},
abstractNote = {Efforts to characterize extrasolar giant planet (EGP) atmospheres have so far emphasized planets within 0.05 AU of their stars. Despite this focus, known EGPs populate a continuum of orbital separations from canonical hot Jupiter values (0.03–0.05 AU) out to 1 AU and beyond. Unlike typical hot Jupiters, these more distant EGPs will not generally be synchronously rotating. In anticipation of observations of this population, we here present three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models exploring the dynamics that emerge over a broad range of rotation rates and incident stellar fluxes appropriate for warm and hot Jupiters. We find that the circulation resides in one of two basic regimes. On typical hot Jupiters, the strong day–night heating contrast leads to a broad, fast superrotating (eastward) equatorial jet and large day–night temperature differences. At faster rotation rates and lower incident fluxes, however, the day–night heating gradient becomes less important, and baroclinic instabilities emerge as a dominant player, leading to eastward jets in the midlatitudes, minimal temperature variations in longitude, and, often, weak winds at the equator. Our most rapidly rotating and least irradiated models exhibit similarities to Jupiter and Saturn, illuminating the dynamical continuum between hot Jupiters and the weakly irradiated giant planets of our own solar system. We present infrared (IR) light curves and spectra of these models, which depend significantly on incident flux and rotation rate. This provides a way to identify the regime transition in future observations. In some cases, IR light curves can provide constraints on the rotation rate of nonsynchronously rotating planets.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/801/2/95},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 801,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Mar 10 00:00:00 EDT 2015},
month = {Tue Mar 10 00:00:00 EDT 2015}
}