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Title: SPATIALLY EXTENDED 21 cm SIGNAL FROM STRONGLY CLUSTERED UV AND X-RAY SOURCES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

Abstract

We present our prediction for the local 21 cm differential brightness temperature (δT{sub b}) from a set of strongly clustered sources of Population III (Pop III) and II (Pop II) objects in the early universe, by a numerical simulation of their formation and radiative feedback. These objects are located inside a highly biased environment, which is a rare, high-density peak (“Rarepeak”) extending to ∼7 comoving Mpc. We study the impact of ultraviolet and X-ray photons on the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the resulting δT{sub b}, when Pop III stars are assumed to emit X-ray photons by forming X-ray binaries very efficiently. We parameterize the rest-frame spectral energy distribution of X-ray photons, which regulates X-ray photon-trapping, IGM-heating, secondary Lyα pumping and the resulting morphology of δT{sub b}. A combination of emission (δT{sub b} > 0) and absorption (δT{sub b} < 0) regions appears in varying amplitudes and angular scales. The boost of the signal by the high-density environment (δ ∼ 0.64) and on a relatively large scale combines to make Rarepeak a discernible, spatially extended (θ ∼ 10′) object for 21 cm observation at 13 ≲ z ≲ 17, which is found to be detectable as a single object by SKAmore » with integration time of ∼1000 hr. Power spectrum analysis by some of the SKA precursors (Low Frequency Array, Murchison Widefield Array, Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization) of such rare peaks is found to be difficult due to the rarity of these peaks, and the contribution only by these rare peaks to the total power spectrum remains subdominant compared to that by all astrophysical sources.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. Department of Earth Sciences, Chosun University, Gwangju, 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)
  2. Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)
  3. Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George St., Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)
  4. Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22522025
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 802; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ABSORPTION SPECTRA; ASTROPHYSICS; BRIGHTNESS; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COSMIC PHOTONS; EMISSION SPECTRA; ENERGY SPECTRA; INTERGALACTIC SPACE; PROBES; RED SHIFT; STARS; TRAPPING; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; UNIVERSE; X RADIATION; X-RAY GALAXIES; X-RAY SOURCES

Citation Formats

Ahn, Kyungjin, Xu, Hao, Norman, Michael L., Alvarez, Marcelo A., and Wise, John H., E-mail: kjahn@chosun.ac.kr. SPATIALLY EXTENDED 21 cm SIGNAL FROM STRONGLY CLUSTERED UV AND X-RAY SOURCES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/802/1/8.
Ahn, Kyungjin, Xu, Hao, Norman, Michael L., Alvarez, Marcelo A., & Wise, John H., E-mail: kjahn@chosun.ac.kr. SPATIALLY EXTENDED 21 cm SIGNAL FROM STRONGLY CLUSTERED UV AND X-RAY SOURCES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/802/1/8.
Ahn, Kyungjin, Xu, Hao, Norman, Michael L., Alvarez, Marcelo A., and Wise, John H., E-mail: kjahn@chosun.ac.kr. Fri . "SPATIALLY EXTENDED 21 cm SIGNAL FROM STRONGLY CLUSTERED UV AND X-RAY SOURCES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/802/1/8.
@article{osti_22522025,
title = {SPATIALLY EXTENDED 21 cm SIGNAL FROM STRONGLY CLUSTERED UV AND X-RAY SOURCES IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE},
author = {Ahn, Kyungjin and Xu, Hao and Norman, Michael L. and Alvarez, Marcelo A. and Wise, John H., E-mail: kjahn@chosun.ac.kr},
abstractNote = {We present our prediction for the local 21 cm differential brightness temperature (δT{sub b}) from a set of strongly clustered sources of Population III (Pop III) and II (Pop II) objects in the early universe, by a numerical simulation of their formation and radiative feedback. These objects are located inside a highly biased environment, which is a rare, high-density peak (“Rarepeak”) extending to ∼7 comoving Mpc. We study the impact of ultraviolet and X-ray photons on the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the resulting δT{sub b}, when Pop III stars are assumed to emit X-ray photons by forming X-ray binaries very efficiently. We parameterize the rest-frame spectral energy distribution of X-ray photons, which regulates X-ray photon-trapping, IGM-heating, secondary Lyα pumping and the resulting morphology of δT{sub b}. A combination of emission (δT{sub b} > 0) and absorption (δT{sub b} < 0) regions appears in varying amplitudes and angular scales. The boost of the signal by the high-density environment (δ ∼ 0.64) and on a relatively large scale combines to make Rarepeak a discernible, spatially extended (θ ∼ 10′) object for 21 cm observation at 13 ≲ z ≲ 17, which is found to be detectable as a single object by SKA with integration time of ∼1000 hr. Power spectrum analysis by some of the SKA precursors (Low Frequency Array, Murchison Widefield Array, Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization) of such rare peaks is found to be difficult due to the rarity of these peaks, and the contribution only by these rare peaks to the total power spectrum remains subdominant compared to that by all astrophysical sources.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/802/1/8},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 802,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Mar 20 00:00:00 EDT 2015},
month = {Fri Mar 20 00:00:00 EDT 2015}
}