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Title: THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. VI. THE KINEMATICS OF ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS AND GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M87

Abstract

The origin of ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs; r{sub h} ≳ 10 pc)—objects larger and more massive than typical globular clusters (GCs), but more compact than typical dwarf galaxies—has been hotly debated in the 15 years since their discovery. Even whether UCDs should be considered galactic in origin, or simply the most extreme star clusters, is not yet settled. We present the dynamical properties of 97 spectroscopically confirmed UCDs and 911 GCs associated with the central cD galaxy of the Virgo cluster, M87. Our UCDs, of which 89% have M {sub *} ≳ 2× 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} and 92% are as blue as the classic blue GCs, nearly triple the confirmed sample of Virgo UCDs, providing by far the best opportunity for studying global dynamics of a UCD system. We found that (1) UCDs have a surface number density profile that is shallower than that of blue GCs in the inner ∼70 kpc and as steep as that of red GCs at larger radii; (2) UCDs exhibit a significantly stronger rotation than GCs, and blue GCs seem to have a velocity field that is more consistent with that of the surrounding dwarf ellipticals than with that of UCDs; (3) UCDs have an orbital anisotropy profilemore » that is tangentially biased at radii ≲40 kpc and radially biased farther out, whereas blue GCs become more tangentially biased at larger radii beyond ∼40 kpc; (4) GCs with M {sub *} ≳ 2 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} have rotational properties indistinguishable from the less massive ones, suggesting that it is the size, instead of mass, that differentiates UCDs from GCs as kinematically distinct populations. We conclude that most UCDs in M87 are not consistent with being merely the most luminous and extended examples of otherwise normal GCs. The radially biased orbital structure of UCDs at large radii is in general agreement with the 'tidally threshed dwarf galaxy' scenario.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]; ; ; ;  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]; ; ;  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [11];
  1. Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
  2. National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics Program, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)
  3. Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)
  4. Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Corporation, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States)
  5. Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  6. Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago (Chile)
  7. Observatoire astronomique de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l'Universite, F-67000 Strasbourg (France)
  8. School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia)
  9. Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France)
  10. School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)
  11. Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris Diderot, CEA/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22522023
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 802; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ANISOTROPY; DENSITY; DWARF STARS; GALAXIES; GALAXY CLUSTERS; MASS; ROTATION; STAR CLUSTERS; SURFACES; VELOCITY

Citation Formats

Zhang, Hong-Xin, Peng, Eric W., Li, Biao, Côté, Patrick, Ferrarese, Laura, Gwyn, Stephen D. J., Blakeslee, John P., Liu, Chengze, Cuillandre, Jean-Charles, Caldwell, Nelson, Jordán, Andrés, Muñoz, Roberto P., Puzia, Thomas H., Lançon, Ariane, Bekki, Kenji, Boselli, Alessandro, Drinkwater, Michael J., Duc, Pierre-Alain, E-mail: hongxin@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: peng@pku.edu.cn, and and others. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. VI. THE KINEMATICS OF ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS AND GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M87. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/802/1/30.
Zhang, Hong-Xin, Peng, Eric W., Li, Biao, Côté, Patrick, Ferrarese, Laura, Gwyn, Stephen D. J., Blakeslee, John P., Liu, Chengze, Cuillandre, Jean-Charles, Caldwell, Nelson, Jordán, Andrés, Muñoz, Roberto P., Puzia, Thomas H., Lançon, Ariane, Bekki, Kenji, Boselli, Alessandro, Drinkwater, Michael J., Duc, Pierre-Alain, E-mail: hongxin@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: peng@pku.edu.cn, & and others. THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. VI. THE KINEMATICS OF ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS AND GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M87. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/802/1/30.
Zhang, Hong-Xin, Peng, Eric W., Li, Biao, Côté, Patrick, Ferrarese, Laura, Gwyn, Stephen D. J., Blakeslee, John P., Liu, Chengze, Cuillandre, Jean-Charles, Caldwell, Nelson, Jordán, Andrés, Muñoz, Roberto P., Puzia, Thomas H., Lançon, Ariane, Bekki, Kenji, Boselli, Alessandro, Drinkwater, Michael J., Duc, Pierre-Alain, E-mail: hongxin@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: peng@pku.edu.cn, and and others. Fri . "THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. VI. THE KINEMATICS OF ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS AND GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M87". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/802/1/30.
@article{osti_22522023,
title = {THE NEXT GENERATION VIRGO CLUSTER SURVEY. VI. THE KINEMATICS OF ULTRA-COMPACT DWARFS AND GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M87},
author = {Zhang, Hong-Xin and Peng, Eric W. and Li, Biao and Côté, Patrick and Ferrarese, Laura and Gwyn, Stephen D. J. and Blakeslee, John P. and Liu, Chengze and Cuillandre, Jean-Charles and Caldwell, Nelson and Jordán, Andrés and Muñoz, Roberto P. and Puzia, Thomas H. and Lançon, Ariane and Bekki, Kenji and Boselli, Alessandro and Drinkwater, Michael J. and Duc, Pierre-Alain, E-mail: hongxin@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: peng@pku.edu.cn and and others},
abstractNote = {The origin of ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs; r{sub h} ≳ 10 pc)—objects larger and more massive than typical globular clusters (GCs), but more compact than typical dwarf galaxies—has been hotly debated in the 15 years since their discovery. Even whether UCDs should be considered galactic in origin, or simply the most extreme star clusters, is not yet settled. We present the dynamical properties of 97 spectroscopically confirmed UCDs and 911 GCs associated with the central cD galaxy of the Virgo cluster, M87. Our UCDs, of which 89% have M {sub *} ≳ 2× 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} and 92% are as blue as the classic blue GCs, nearly triple the confirmed sample of Virgo UCDs, providing by far the best opportunity for studying global dynamics of a UCD system. We found that (1) UCDs have a surface number density profile that is shallower than that of blue GCs in the inner ∼70 kpc and as steep as that of red GCs at larger radii; (2) UCDs exhibit a significantly stronger rotation than GCs, and blue GCs seem to have a velocity field that is more consistent with that of the surrounding dwarf ellipticals than with that of UCDs; (3) UCDs have an orbital anisotropy profile that is tangentially biased at radii ≲40 kpc and radially biased farther out, whereas blue GCs become more tangentially biased at larger radii beyond ∼40 kpc; (4) GCs with M {sub *} ≳ 2 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} have rotational properties indistinguishable from the less massive ones, suggesting that it is the size, instead of mass, that differentiates UCDs from GCs as kinematically distinct populations. We conclude that most UCDs in M87 are not consistent with being merely the most luminous and extended examples of otherwise normal GCs. The radially biased orbital structure of UCDs at large radii is in general agreement with the 'tidally threshed dwarf galaxy' scenario.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/802/1/30},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 802,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Mar 20 00:00:00 EDT 2015},
month = {Fri Mar 20 00:00:00 EDT 2015}
}