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Title: THE DETECTION RATE OF EARLY UV EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVAE: A DEDICATED GALEX/PTF SURVEY AND CALIBRATED THEORETICAL ESTIMATES

Abstract

The radius and surface composition of an exploding massive star, as well as the explosion energy per unit mass, can be measured using early UV observations of core-collapse supernovae (SNe). We present the first results from a simultaneous GALEX/PTF search for early ultraviolet (UV) emission from SNe. Six SNe II and one Type II superluminous SN (SLSN-II) are clearly detected in the GALEX near-UV (NUV) data. We compare our detection rate with theoretical estimates based on early, shock-cooling UV light curves calculated from models that fit existing Swift and GALEX observations well, combined with volumetric SN rates. We find that our observations are in good agreement with calculated rates assuming that red supergiants (RSGs) explode with fiducial radii of 500 R{sub ⊙}, explosion energies of 10{sup 51} erg, and ejecta masses of 10 M{sub ⊙}. Exploding blue supergiants and Wolf–Rayet stars are poorly constrained. We describe how such observations can be used to derive the progenitor radius, surface composition, and explosion energy per unit mass of such SN events, and we demonstrate why UV observations are critical for such measurements. We use the fiducial RSG parameters to estimate the detection rate of SNe during the shock-cooling phase (<1 day aftermore » explosion) for several ground-based surveys (PTF, ZTF, and LSST). We show that the proposed wide-field UV explorer ULTRASAT mission is expected to find >85 SNe per year (∼0.5 SN per deg{sup 2}), independent of host galaxy extinction, down to an NUV detection limit of 21.5 mag AB. Our pilot GALEX/PTF project thus convincingly demonstrates that a dedicated, systematic SN survey at the NUV band is a compelling method to study how massive stars end their life.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]; ;  [2];  [3]; ;  [4]; ;  [5]; ; ;  [6];  [7]; ; ;  [8] more »; ; ; ; ; « less
  1. Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Physics, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)
  2. Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
  3. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
  4. Physics Department, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, 31905 Haifa (Israel)
  5. Physics Department, Technion Israel Institute of Technology, 32000 Haifa (Israel)
  6. School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel)
  7. Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27 Zurich 8093 (Switzerland)
  8. California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 278-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22521417
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Astrophysical Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 820; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0004-637X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; COOLING; DIAGRAMS; GALACTIC EVOLUTION; GALAXIES; MASS; PHOTON EMISSION; SENSITIVITY; SUPERNOVAE; SURFACES; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; WOLF-RAYET STARS

Citation Formats

Ganot, Noam, Gal-Yam, Avishay, Ofek, Eran O., Sagiv, Ilan, Waxman, Eli, Lapid, Ofer, Kulkarni, Shrinivas R., Kasliwal, Mansi M., Ben-Ami, Sagi, Chelouche, Doron, Rafter, Stephen, Behar, Ehud, Laor, Ari, Poznanski, Dovi, Nakar, Ehud, Maoz, Dan, Trakhtenbrot, Benny, Neill, James D., Barlow, Thomas A., Martin, Christofer D., E-mail: noam.ganot@gmail.com, Collaboration: ULTRASAT Science Team, WTTH consortium, GALEX Science Team, Palomar Transient Factory, and and others. THE DETECTION RATE OF EARLY UV EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVAE: A DEDICATED GALEX/PTF SURVEY AND CALIBRATED THEORETICAL ESTIMATES. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/820/1/57.
Ganot, Noam, Gal-Yam, Avishay, Ofek, Eran O., Sagiv, Ilan, Waxman, Eli, Lapid, Ofer, Kulkarni, Shrinivas R., Kasliwal, Mansi M., Ben-Ami, Sagi, Chelouche, Doron, Rafter, Stephen, Behar, Ehud, Laor, Ari, Poznanski, Dovi, Nakar, Ehud, Maoz, Dan, Trakhtenbrot, Benny, Neill, James D., Barlow, Thomas A., Martin, Christofer D., E-mail: noam.ganot@gmail.com, Collaboration: ULTRASAT Science Team, WTTH consortium, GALEX Science Team, Palomar Transient Factory, & and others. THE DETECTION RATE OF EARLY UV EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVAE: A DEDICATED GALEX/PTF SURVEY AND CALIBRATED THEORETICAL ESTIMATES. United States. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/820/1/57.
Ganot, Noam, Gal-Yam, Avishay, Ofek, Eran O., Sagiv, Ilan, Waxman, Eli, Lapid, Ofer, Kulkarni, Shrinivas R., Kasliwal, Mansi M., Ben-Ami, Sagi, Chelouche, Doron, Rafter, Stephen, Behar, Ehud, Laor, Ari, Poznanski, Dovi, Nakar, Ehud, Maoz, Dan, Trakhtenbrot, Benny, Neill, James D., Barlow, Thomas A., Martin, Christofer D., E-mail: noam.ganot@gmail.com, Collaboration: ULTRASAT Science Team, WTTH consortium, GALEX Science Team, Palomar Transient Factory, and and others. Sun . "THE DETECTION RATE OF EARLY UV EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVAE: A DEDICATED GALEX/PTF SURVEY AND CALIBRATED THEORETICAL ESTIMATES". United States. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/820/1/57.
@article{osti_22521417,
title = {THE DETECTION RATE OF EARLY UV EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVAE: A DEDICATED GALEX/PTF SURVEY AND CALIBRATED THEORETICAL ESTIMATES},
author = {Ganot, Noam and Gal-Yam, Avishay and Ofek, Eran O. and Sagiv, Ilan and Waxman, Eli and Lapid, Ofer and Kulkarni, Shrinivas R. and Kasliwal, Mansi M. and Ben-Ami, Sagi and Chelouche, Doron and Rafter, Stephen and Behar, Ehud and Laor, Ari and Poznanski, Dovi and Nakar, Ehud and Maoz, Dan and Trakhtenbrot, Benny and Neill, James D. and Barlow, Thomas A. and Martin, Christofer D., E-mail: noam.ganot@gmail.com and Collaboration: ULTRASAT Science Team and WTTH consortium and GALEX Science Team and Palomar Transient Factory and and others},
abstractNote = {The radius and surface composition of an exploding massive star, as well as the explosion energy per unit mass, can be measured using early UV observations of core-collapse supernovae (SNe). We present the first results from a simultaneous GALEX/PTF search for early ultraviolet (UV) emission from SNe. Six SNe II and one Type II superluminous SN (SLSN-II) are clearly detected in the GALEX near-UV (NUV) data. We compare our detection rate with theoretical estimates based on early, shock-cooling UV light curves calculated from models that fit existing Swift and GALEX observations well, combined with volumetric SN rates. We find that our observations are in good agreement with calculated rates assuming that red supergiants (RSGs) explode with fiducial radii of 500 R{sub ⊙}, explosion energies of 10{sup 51} erg, and ejecta masses of 10 M{sub ⊙}. Exploding blue supergiants and Wolf–Rayet stars are poorly constrained. We describe how such observations can be used to derive the progenitor radius, surface composition, and explosion energy per unit mass of such SN events, and we demonstrate why UV observations are critical for such measurements. We use the fiducial RSG parameters to estimate the detection rate of SNe during the shock-cooling phase (<1 day after explosion) for several ground-based surveys (PTF, ZTF, and LSST). We show that the proposed wide-field UV explorer ULTRASAT mission is expected to find >85 SNe per year (∼0.5 SN per deg{sup 2}), independent of host galaxy extinction, down to an NUV detection limit of 21.5 mag AB. Our pilot GALEX/PTF project thus convincingly demonstrates that a dedicated, systematic SN survey at the NUV band is a compelling method to study how massive stars end their life.},
doi = {10.3847/0004-637X/820/1/57},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
issn = {0004-637X},
number = 1,
volume = 820,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {3}
}