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Title: SU-E-J-209: Geometric Distortion at 3T in a Commercial 4D MRI-Compatible Phantom

Abstract

Purpose: There are very few commercial 4D phantoms that are marketed as MRI compatible. We are evaluating one such commercial phantom, made to be used with an MRI-Linear accelerator. The focus of this work is to characterize the geometric distortions produced in this phantom at 3T using 3 clinical MR pulse sequences. Methods: The CIRS MRI-Linac Dynamic Phantom (CIRSTM) under investigation in this study consists of a softwaredriven moving tumour volume within a thorax phantom body and enables dose accumulation by placing a dosimeter within the tumour volume. Our initial investigation is to evaluate the phantom in static mode prior to examining its 4D capability. The water-filled thorax phantom was scanned using a wide-bore Philips 3T Achieva MRI scanner employing a Thoracic xl coil and clinical 2D T1W FFE, 2D T1W TSE and 3D T1W TFE pulse sequences. Each of the MR image sets was rigidly fused with a reference CT image of the phantom employing a rigid registration with 6 degrees of freedom. Geometric distortions between the MR and CT image sets were measured in 3 dimensions at selected points along the periphery of the distortion grid embedded within the phantom body (11.5, 7.5 and 3 cm laterally, ant/postmore » and sup/inf of magnetic isocenter respectively). Results: The maximal measured geometric distortions between the MR and reference CT points of interest were 0.9, 1.8 and 1.3 mm in the lateral, anteriorposterior and cranio-caudal directions, respectively. For all 3 spatial dimensions, the maximal distortions occurred for the FFE pulse sequence. Maximal distortions for the 2D FFE, 2D TSE and 3D TFE sequences were 1, 0.7 and 1.8 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Our initial static investigation of this phantom shows minimal geometric distortions at 3T along the periphery of the embedded grid. CIRS has provided us with a phantom at no charge for evaluation at 3 Tesla.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22499313
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 42; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; CHEST; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; DOSEMETERS; EVALUATION; IMAGE PROCESSING; IMAGES; LINEAR ACCELERATORS; NMR IMAGING; PHANTOMS; RADIATION DOSES

Citation Formats

Fatemi-Ardekani, A, Wronski, M, Kim, A, Stanisz, G, Sarfehnia, A, and Keller, B. SU-E-J-209: Geometric Distortion at 3T in a Commercial 4D MRI-Compatible Phantom. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4924295.
Fatemi-Ardekani, A, Wronski, M, Kim, A, Stanisz, G, Sarfehnia, A, & Keller, B. SU-E-J-209: Geometric Distortion at 3T in a Commercial 4D MRI-Compatible Phantom. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4924295.
Fatemi-Ardekani, A, Wronski, M, Kim, A, Stanisz, G, Sarfehnia, A, and Keller, B. Mon . "SU-E-J-209: Geometric Distortion at 3T in a Commercial 4D MRI-Compatible Phantom". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4924295.
@article{osti_22499313,
title = {SU-E-J-209: Geometric Distortion at 3T in a Commercial 4D MRI-Compatible Phantom},
author = {Fatemi-Ardekani, A and Wronski, M and Kim, A and Stanisz, G and Sarfehnia, A and Keller, B},
abstractNote = {Purpose: There are very few commercial 4D phantoms that are marketed as MRI compatible. We are evaluating one such commercial phantom, made to be used with an MRI-Linear accelerator. The focus of this work is to characterize the geometric distortions produced in this phantom at 3T using 3 clinical MR pulse sequences. Methods: The CIRS MRI-Linac Dynamic Phantom (CIRSTM) under investigation in this study consists of a softwaredriven moving tumour volume within a thorax phantom body and enables dose accumulation by placing a dosimeter within the tumour volume. Our initial investigation is to evaluate the phantom in static mode prior to examining its 4D capability. The water-filled thorax phantom was scanned using a wide-bore Philips 3T Achieva MRI scanner employing a Thoracic xl coil and clinical 2D T1W FFE, 2D T1W TSE and 3D T1W TFE pulse sequences. Each of the MR image sets was rigidly fused with a reference CT image of the phantom employing a rigid registration with 6 degrees of freedom. Geometric distortions between the MR and CT image sets were measured in 3 dimensions at selected points along the periphery of the distortion grid embedded within the phantom body (11.5, 7.5 and 3 cm laterally, ant/post and sup/inf of magnetic isocenter respectively). Results: The maximal measured geometric distortions between the MR and reference CT points of interest were 0.9, 1.8 and 1.3 mm in the lateral, anteriorposterior and cranio-caudal directions, respectively. For all 3 spatial dimensions, the maximal distortions occurred for the FFE pulse sequence. Maximal distortions for the 2D FFE, 2D TSE and 3D TFE sequences were 1, 0.7 and 1.8 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Our initial static investigation of this phantom shows minimal geometric distortions at 3T along the periphery of the embedded grid. CIRS has provided us with a phantom at no charge for evaluation at 3 Tesla.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4924295},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 42,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2015},
month = {Mon Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2015}
}
  • Purpose: To quantify the magnitude of geometric distortion for MRI scanners and provide recommendations for MRI imaging for radiation therapy Methods: A novel phantom, QUASAR MRID3D [Modus Medical Devices Inc.], was scanned to evaluate the level of 3D geometric distortion present in five MRI scanners used for radiation therapy in our department. The phantom was scanned using the body coil with 1mm image slice thickness to acquire 3D images of the phantom body. The phantom was aligned to its geometric center for each scan, and the field of view was set to visualize the entire phantom. The dependence of distortionmore » magnitude with distance from imaging isocenter and with magnetic field strength (1.5T and 3T) was investigated. Additionally, the characteristics of distortion for Siemens and GE machines were compared. The image distortion for each scanner was quantified in terms of mean, standard deviation (STD), maximum distortion, and skewness. Results: The 3T and 1.5T scans show a similar absolute distortion with a mean of 1.38mm (0.33mm STD) for 3T and 1.39mm (0.34mm STD) for 1.5T for a 100mm radius distance from isocenter. Some machines can have a distortion larger than 10mm at a distance of 200mm from the isocenter. The distortions are presented with plots of the x, y, and z directional components. Conclusion: The results indicate that quantification of MRI image distortion is crucial in radiation oncology for target and organ delineation and treatment planning. The magnitude of geometric distortion determines the margin needed for target contouring which is usually neglected in treatment planning process, especially for SRS/SBRT treatments. Understanding the 3D distribution of the MRI image distortion will improve the accuracy of target delineation and, hence, treatment efficacy. MRI imaging with proper patient alignment to the isocenter is vital to reducing the effects of MRI distortion in treatment planning.« less
  • Purpose: MRI has superb soft tissue contrast but is also known for geometric distortions. The concerns and uncertainty about MRI’s geometric distortion have contributed to the hesitation of using only MRI for simulation in radiation therapy. There are two major categories of geometric distortion in MRI; system related and patient related. In this presentation, we studied the impact of system-related geometric distortion on dose distribution in a digital body phantom under an MR-Linac environment. Methods: Residual geometric distortion (after built-in geometric correction) was modeled based on phantom measurements of the system-related geometric distortions of a MRI scanner of a combinedmore » MR guided Radiation Therapy (MRgRT) system. A digital oval shaped phantom (40×25 cm) as well as one ellipsoid shaped tumor volume was created to simulate a simplified human body. The simulated tumor volume was positioned at several locations between the isocenter and the body surface. CT numbers in HUs that approximate soft tissue and tumor were assigned to the respective regions in the digital phantom. To study the effect of geometric distortion caused by system imperfections, an IMRT plan was optimized with the distorted image set with the B field. Dose distributions were re-calculated on the undistorted image set with the B field (as in MR-Linac). Results: The maximum discrepancies in both body contour and tumor boundary was less than 2 mm, which leads to small dose distribution change. For the target in the center, coverage was reduced from 98.8% (with distortion) to 98.2%; for the other peripheral target coverage was reduced from 98.4% to 95.9%. Conclusion: System related geometric distortions over the 40×25 area were within 2mm and the resulted dosimetric effects were minor for the two tumor locations in the phantom. Patient study will be needed for further investigation. The authors received a corporate research grant from Elekta.« less
  • Purpose: Uncertainties about geometric distortion have somewhat hindered MRI simulation in radiation therapy. Most of the geometric distortion studies were performed with phantom measurements but another major aspect of MR distortion is patient related. We studied the geometric distortion in patient images by comparing their MRI scans with the corresponding CT, using CT as the non-distorted gold standard. Methods: Ten H&N cancer patients were imaged with MRI as part of a prospective IRB approved study. All patients had their treatment planning CT done on the same day or within one week of the MRI. MR Images were acquired with amore » T2 SE sequence (1×1×2.5mm voxel size) in the same immobilization position as in the CT scans. MRI to CT rigid registration was then done and geometric distortion comparison was done by measuring the corresponding anatomical landmarks on both the MRI and the CT images by two observers. Several skin to skin (9 landmarks), bone to bone (8 landmarks), and soft tissue (3 landmarks) were measured at specific levels in horizontal and vertical planes of both scans. Results: The mean distortion for all landmark measurements in all scans was 1.8±1.9mm. For each patient 11 measurements were done in the horizontal plane while 9 were done in the vertical plane. The measured geometric distortion were significantly lower in the horizontal axis compared to the vertical axis (1.3±0.16 mm vs 2.2±0.19 mm, respectively, P=0.003*). The magnitude of distortion was lower in the bone to bone landmarks compared to the combined soft tissue and skin to skin landmarks (1.2±0.19 mm vs 2.3±0.17 mm, P=0.0006*). The mean distortion measured by observer one was not significantly different compared toobserver 2 (2.3 vs 2.4 mm, P=0.4). Conclusion: MRI geometric distortions were quantified in H&N patients with mean error of less than 2 mm. JW received a corporate sponsored research grant from Elekta.« less
  • Purpose: 4D-CT is often limited by motion artifacts, low temporal resolution, and poor phase-based target definition. We recently developed a novel k-space self-gated 4D-MRI technique with high spatial and temporal resolution. The goal here is to geometrically validate 4D-MRI using a MRI-CT compatible respiratory motion phantom and comparison to 4D-CT. Methods: 4D-MRI was acquired using 3T spoiled gradient echo-based 3D projection sequences. Respiratory phases were resolved using self-gated k-space lines as the motion surrogate. Images were reconstructed into 10 temporal bins with 1.56×1.56×1.56mm3. A MRI-CT compatible phantom was designed with a 23mm diameter ball target filled with highconcentration gadolinium(Gd) gelmore » embedded in a 35×40×63mm3 plastic box stabilized with low-concentration Gd gel. The whole phantom was driven by an air pump. Human respiratory motion was mimicked using the controller from a commercial dynamic phantom (RSD). Four breathing settings (rates/depths: 10s/20mm, 6s/15mm, 4s/10mm, 3s/7mm) were scanned with 4D-MRI and 4D-CT (slice thickness 1.25mm). Motion ground-truth was obtained from input signals and real-time video recordings. Reconstructed images were imported into Eclipse(Varian) for target contouring. Volumes and target positions were compared with ground-truth. Initial human study was investigated on a liver patient. Results: 4D-MRI and 4D-CT scans for the different breathing cycles were reconstructed with 10 phases. Target volume in each phase was measured for both 4D-CT and 4D-MRI. Volume percentage difference for the 6.37ml target ranged from 6.67±5.33 to 11.63±5.57 for 4D-CT and from 1.47±0.52 to 2.12±1.60 for 4D-MRI. The Mann-Whitney U-test shows the 4D-MRI is significantly superior to 4D-CT (p=0.021) for phase-based target definition. Centroid motion error ranges were 1.35–1.25mm (4D-CT), and 0.31–0.12mm (4D-MRI). Conclusion: The k-space self-gated 4D-MRI we recently developed can accurately determine phase-based target volume while avoiding typical motion artifacts found in 4D-CT, and is being further studied for use in GI targeting and motion management. This work supported in part by grant 1R03CA173273-01.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate the accuracy of 4D-MRI in determining the Internal Target Volume (ITV) used in radiation oncology treatment planning of liver cancers. Cine MRI is used as the standard baseline in establishing the feasibility and accuracy of 4D-MRI tumor motion within the liver. Methods: IRB approval was obtained for this retrospective study. Analysis was performed on MR images from four patients receiving external beam radiation therapy for liver cancer at our institution. Eligible patients received both Cine and 4D-MRI scans before treatment. Cine images were acquired sagittally in real time at a slice bisecting the tumor, while 4D imagesmore » were acquired volumetrically. Cine MR DICOM headers were manipulated such that each respiratory frame was assigned a unique slice location. This approach permitted the treatment planning system (Eclipse, Varian Medical Systems) to recognize a complete respiratory cycle as a “volume”, where the gross tumor was contoured temporally. Software was developed to calculate the union of all frame contours in the structure set, resulting in the corresponding plane of the ITV projecting through the middle of the tumor, defined as the Internal Target Area (ITA). This was repeated for 4D-MRI, at the corresponding slice location, allowing a direct comparison of ITAs obtained from each modality. Results: Four patients have been analyzed. ITAs contoured from 4D-MRI correlate with contours from Cine MRI. The mean error of 4D values relative to Cine values is 7.67 +/− 2.55 %. No single ITA contoured from 4D-MRI demonstrated more than 10.5 % error compared to its Cine MRI counterpart. Conclusion: Motion management is a significant aspect of treatment planning within dynamic environments such as the liver, where diaphragmatic and cardiac activity influence plan accuracy. This small pilot study suggests that 4D-MRI based ITA measurements agree with Cine MRI based measurements, an important step towards clinical implementation. NIH 1R21CA165384-01A1.« less