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Title: SU-E-T-598: Parametric Equation for Quick and Reliable Estimate of Stray Neutron Doses in Proton Therapy and Application for Intracranial Tumor Treatments

Abstract

Purpose: Development of a parametric equation suitable for a daily use in routine clinic to provide estimates of stray neutron doses in proton therapy. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) calculations using the UF-NCI 1-year-old phantom were exercised to determine the variation of stray neutron doses as a function of irradiation parameters while performing intracranial treatments. This was done by individually changing the proton beam energy, modulation width, collimator aperture and thickness, compensator thickness and the air gap size while their impact on neutron doses were put into a single equation. The variation of neutron doses with distance from the target volume was also included in it. Then, a first step consisted in establishing the fitting coefficients by using 221 learning data which were neutron absorbed doses obtained with MC simulations while a second step consisted in validating the final equation. Results: The variation of stray neutron doses with irradiation parameters were fitted with linear, polynomial, etc. model while a power-law model was used to fit the variation of stray neutron doses with the distance from the target volume. The parametric equation fitted well MC simulations while establishing fitting coefficients as the discrepancies on the estimate of neutron absorbed doses were withinmore » 10%. The discrepancy can reach ∼25% for the bladder, the farthest organ from the target volume. Finally, the validation showed results in compliance with MC calculations since the discrepancies were also within 10% for head-and-neck and thoracic organs while they can reach ∼25%, again for pelvic organs. Conclusion: The parametric equation presents promising results and will be validated for other target sites as well as other facilities to go towards a universal method.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]; ;  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-roses (France)
  2. Institut Curie Centre de Protontherapie d Orsay (CPO), Orsay (France)
  3. Centre Antoine Lacassagne (CAL) Cyclotron biomedical, Nice (France)
  4. National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States)
  5. Univ Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22496311
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 42; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; 62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; ABSORBED RADIATION DOSES; EQUATIONS; IRRADIATION; MONTE CARLO METHOD; NEUTRON BEAMS; PHANTOMS; PROTON BEAMS; RADIOTHERAPY; SIMULATION; VARIATIONS

Citation Formats

Bonfrate, A, Farah, J, Sayah, R, Clairand, I, De Marzi, L, Delacroix, S, Herault, J, Lee, C, and Bolch, W. SU-E-T-598: Parametric Equation for Quick and Reliable Estimate of Stray Neutron Doses in Proton Therapy and Application for Intracranial Tumor Treatments. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4924961.
Bonfrate, A, Farah, J, Sayah, R, Clairand, I, De Marzi, L, Delacroix, S, Herault, J, Lee, C, & Bolch, W. SU-E-T-598: Parametric Equation for Quick and Reliable Estimate of Stray Neutron Doses in Proton Therapy and Application for Intracranial Tumor Treatments. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4924961.
Bonfrate, A, Farah, J, Sayah, R, Clairand, I, De Marzi, L, Delacroix, S, Herault, J, Lee, C, and Bolch, W. Mon . "SU-E-T-598: Parametric Equation for Quick and Reliable Estimate of Stray Neutron Doses in Proton Therapy and Application for Intracranial Tumor Treatments". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4924961.
@article{osti_22496311,
title = {SU-E-T-598: Parametric Equation for Quick and Reliable Estimate of Stray Neutron Doses in Proton Therapy and Application for Intracranial Tumor Treatments},
author = {Bonfrate, A and Farah, J and Sayah, R and Clairand, I and De Marzi, L and Delacroix, S and Herault, J and Lee, C and Bolch, W},
abstractNote = {Purpose: Development of a parametric equation suitable for a daily use in routine clinic to provide estimates of stray neutron doses in proton therapy. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) calculations using the UF-NCI 1-year-old phantom were exercised to determine the variation of stray neutron doses as a function of irradiation parameters while performing intracranial treatments. This was done by individually changing the proton beam energy, modulation width, collimator aperture and thickness, compensator thickness and the air gap size while their impact on neutron doses were put into a single equation. The variation of neutron doses with distance from the target volume was also included in it. Then, a first step consisted in establishing the fitting coefficients by using 221 learning data which were neutron absorbed doses obtained with MC simulations while a second step consisted in validating the final equation. Results: The variation of stray neutron doses with irradiation parameters were fitted with linear, polynomial, etc. model while a power-law model was used to fit the variation of stray neutron doses with the distance from the target volume. The parametric equation fitted well MC simulations while establishing fitting coefficients as the discrepancies on the estimate of neutron absorbed doses were within 10%. The discrepancy can reach ∼25% for the bladder, the farthest organ from the target volume. Finally, the validation showed results in compliance with MC calculations since the discrepancies were also within 10% for head-and-neck and thoracic organs while they can reach ∼25%, again for pelvic organs. Conclusion: The parametric equation presents promising results and will be validated for other target sites as well as other facilities to go towards a universal method.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4924961},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 42,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2015},
month = {Mon Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2015}
}
  • Purpose: To characterize the dose distributions of Cyberknife and intensity-modulated-proton-therapy (IMPT). Methods: A total of 20 patients previously treated with Cyberknife were selected. The original planning-target-volume (PTV) was used in the ‘IMPT-ideal’ plan assuming a comparable image-guidance with Cyberknife. A 3mm expansion was made to create the proton-PTV for the ‘IMPT-3mm’ plan representing the current proton-therapy where a margin of 3mm is used to account for the inferior image-guidance. The proton range uncertainty was taken-care in beam-design by adding the proximal- and distal-margins (3%water-equivalent-depth+1mm) for both proton plans. The IMPT plans were generated to meet the same target coverage asmore » the Cyberknife-plans. The plan quality of IMPT-ideal and IMPT-3mm were compared to the Cyberknife-plan. To characterize plan quality, we defined the ratio(R) of volumes encompassed by the selected isodose surfaces for Cyberknife and IMPT plans (VCK/VIMPT). Comparisons were made for both Cyberknife versus IMPT-ideal and Cyberknife versusIMPT-3mm to further discuss the impact of setup error margins used in proton therapy and the correlation with target size and location. Results: IMPT-ideal plans yield comparable plan quality as CK plans and slightly better OAR sparing while the IMPT-3mm plan results in a higher dose to the OARs, especially for centralized tumors. Comparing to the IMPT-ideal plans, a slightly larger 80% (Ravg=1.05) dose cloud and significantly larger 50% (Ravg=1.3) and 20% (Ravg=1.60) dose clouds are seen in CK plans. However, the 3mm expansion results in a larger high and medium dose clouds in IMPT-3mm plans (Ravg=0.65 for 80%-isodose; Ravg=0.93 for 50%-isodose). The trend increases with the size of the target and the distance from the brainstem to the center of target. Conclusion: Cyberknife is more preferable for treating centralized targets and proton therapy is advantageous for the large and peripheral targets. Advanced image guidance would improve the efficacy of proton therapy for intracranial treatments.« less
  • Purpose: Measure stray radiation inside a passive scattering proton therapy facility, compare values to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and identify the actual needs and challenges. Methods: Measurements and MC simulations were considered to acknowledge neutron exposure associated with 75 MeV ocular or 180 MeV intracranial passively scattered proton treatments. First, using a specifically-designed high sensitivity Bonner Sphere system, neutron spectra were measured at different positions inside the treatment rooms. Next, measurement-based mapping of neutron ambient dose equivalent was fulfilled using several TEPCs and rem-meters. Finally, photon and neutron organ doses were measured using TLDs, RPLs and PADCs set inside anthropomorphicmore » phantoms (Rando, 1 and 5-years-old CIRS). All measurements were also simulated with MCNPX to investigate the efficiency of MC models in predicting stray neutrons considering different nuclear cross sections and models. Results: Knowledge of the neutron fluence and energy distribution inside a proton therapy room is critical for stray radiation dosimetry. However, as spectrometry unfolding is initiated using a MC guess spectrum and suffers from algorithmic limits a 20% spectrometry uncertainty is expected. H*(10) mapping with TEPCs and rem-meters showed a good agreement between the detectors. Differences within measurement uncertainty (10–15%) were observed and are inherent to the energy, fluence and directional response of each detector. For a typical ocular and intracranial treatment respectively, neutron doses outside the clinical target volume of 0.4 and 11 mGy were measured inside the Rando phantom. Photon doses were 2–10 times lower depending on organs position. High uncertainties (40%) are inherent to TLDs and PADCs measurements due to the need for neutron spectra at detector position. Finally, stray neutrons prediction with MC simulations proved to be extremely dependent on proton beam energy and the used nuclear models and cross sections. Conclusion: This work highlights measurement and simulation limits for ion therapy radiation protection applications.« less
  • Purpose: We present a quantitative methodology utilizing an optical tracking system for monitoring head inter-fraction movements within brain masks to assess the effectiveness of two intracranial immobilization techniques. Methods and Materials: A 3-point-tracking method was developed to measure the mask location for a treatment field at each fraction. Measured displacement of mask location to its location at first fraction is equivalent to the head movement within the mask. Head movements for each of treatment fields were measured over about 10 fractions at each patient for seven patients; five treated in supine and two treated in prone. The Q-fix Base-of-Skull headmore » frame was used in supine while the CIVCO uni-frame baseplate was used in prone. Displacements of recoded couch position of each field post imaging at each fraction were extracted for those seven patients. Standard deviation (S.D.) of head movements and couch displacements was scored for statistical analysis. Results: The accuracy of 3PtTrack method was within 1.0 mm by phantom measurements. Patterns of head movement and couch displacement were similar for patients treated in either supine or prone. In superior-inferior direction, mean value of scored standard deviations over seven patients were 1.6 mm and 3.4 mm for the head movement and the couch displacement, respectively. The result indicated that the head movement combined with a loose fixation between the mask-to-head frame results large couch displacements for each patient, and also large variation between patients. However, the head movement is the main cause for the couch displacement with similar magnitude of around 1.0 mm in anterior-posterior and lateral directions. Conclusions: Optical-tracking methodology independently quantifying head movements could improve immobilization devices by correctly acting on causes for head motions within mask. A confidence in the quality of intracranial immobilization techniques could be more efficient by eliminating the need for frequent imaging.« less
  • Purpose: As proton therapy machines become widespread the need for a quick simple routine daily QA like that for linear accelerators becomes more important. Willis-Knighton has developed an accurate and efficient daily QA that can be performed in 15 minutes. Methods: A holder for a 2D ionization chamber array (MatriXX PT) was created that is indexed to the couch to allow for quick setup, lasers accuracy with respect to beam isocenter, and couch reproducibility. Image position/reposition was performed to check Isocentricity accuracy by placing BBs on the MatriXX. The couch coordinates are compared to that of commissioning. Laser positions weremore » confirmed with the MatriXX isocenter. After IGRT, three beams were separately delivered according to setup. For the first beam, range shifter was inserted and dose at R90, field size, flatness and symmetry in X and Y direction was measured. R90 was used so any minor changes in the range shifter can be detected. For the open beam, dose at center of SOBP, flatness and symmetry in X and Y direction was measured. Field size was measured in ±X and ±Y direction at FWHM. This is measured so any variation in spot size will be detected. For the third beam additional solid water was added and dose at R50 was measured so that any variation in beam energy will be detected. Basic mechanical and safety checks were also performed. Results: Medical physicists were able to complete the daily QA and reduce the time by half to two-third from initial daily QA procedure. All the values measured were within tolerance of that of the baseline which was established from water tank and initial MatriXX measurements. Conclusion: The change in daily QA procedure resulted in quick and easy setup and was able to measure all the basic functionality of the proton therapy PBS.« less
  • Purpose: A major concern in proton therapy is the production of secondary neutrons causing secondary cancers, especially in young adults and children. Most utilized Monte Carlo codes in proton therapy are Geant4 and MCNP. However, the default versions of Geant4 and MCNP6 do not have suitable cross sections or physical models to properly handle secondary particle production in proton energy ranges used for therapy. In this study, default versions of Geant4 and MCNP6 were modified to better handle production of secondaries by adding the TENDL-2012 cross-section library. Methods: In-water proton depth-dose was measured at the “The Svedberg Laboratory” in Uppsalamore » (Sweden). The proton beam was mono-energetic with mean energy of 178.25±0.2 MeV. The measurement set-up was simulated by Geant4 version 10.00 (default and modified version) and MCNP6. Proton depth-dose, primary and secondary particle fluence and neutron equivalent dose were calculated. In case of Geant4, the secondary particle fluence was filtered by all the physics processes to identify the main process responsible for the difference between the default and modified version. Results: The proton depth-dose curves and primary proton fluence show a good agreement between both Geant4 versions and MCNP6. With respect to the modified version, default Geant4 underestimates the production of secondary neutrons while overestimates that of gammas. The “ProtonInElastic” process was identified as the main responsible process for the difference between the two versions. MCNP6 shows higher neutron production and lower gamma production than both Geant4 versions. Conclusion: Despite the good agreement on the proton depth dose curve and primary proton fluence, there is a significant discrepancy on secondary neutron production between MCNP6 and both versions of Geant4. Further studies are thus in order to find the possible cause of this discrepancy or more accurate cross-sections/models to handle the nuclear interactions of protons with energy ranges used for therapy. NSERC-CRSNG’ CREATE Medical Physics Research Training Network compute calcul CANADA; McGill University health center research institute the fast foundation; LM acknowledges partial support by the CREATE Medical Physics Research Training Network grant of the Natural Sciences and Engineering; Research Council Grant number 432290.« less