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Title: Sub-band gap photo-enhanced secondary electron emission from high-purity single-crystal chemical-vapor-deposited diamond

Abstract

Secondary-electron-emission (SEE) current measured from high-purity, single-crystal (100) chemical-vapor-deposited diamond is found to increase when sub-band gap (3.06 eV) photons are incident on the hydrogenated surface. Although the light does not produce photoemission directly, the SEE current increases by more than a factor of 2 before saturating with increasing laser power. In energy distribution curves (EDCs), the emission peak shows a corresponding increase in intensity with increasing laser power. However, the emission-onset energy in the EDCs remains constant, indicating that the bands are pinned at the surface. On the other hand, changes are observed on the high-energy side of the distribution as the laser power increases, with a well-defined shoulder becoming more pronounced. From an analysis of this feature in the EDCs, it is deduced that upward band bending is present in the near-surface region during the SEE measurements and this band bending suppresses the SEE yield. However, sub-band gap photon illumination reduces the band bending and thereby increases the SEE current. Because the bands are pinned at the surface, we conclude that the changes in the band levels occur below the surface in the electron transport region. Sample heating produces similar effects as observed with sub-band gap photon illumination, namely,more » an increase in SEE current and a reduction in band bending. However, the upward band bending is not fully removed by either increasing laser power or temperature, and a minimum band bending of ∼0.8 eV is established in both cases. The sub-band gap photo-excitation mechanism is under further investigation, although it appears likely at present that defect or gap states play a role in the photo-enhanced SEE process. In the meantime, the study demonstrates the ability of visible light to modify the electronic properties of diamond and enhance the emission capabilities, which may have potential impact for diamond-based vacuum electron sources, particle detectors, and other electronic devices.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave. SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22494991
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 119; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: (c) 2016 U.S. Government; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION; DIAMONDS; ELECTRON EMISSION; LASERS; PHOTOEMISSION

Citation Formats

Yater, J. E., E-mail: joan.yater@nrl.navy.mil, Shaw, J. L., Pate, B. B., and Feygelson, T. I. Sub-band gap photo-enhanced secondary electron emission from high-purity single-crystal chemical-vapor-deposited diamond. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4941020.
Yater, J. E., E-mail: joan.yater@nrl.navy.mil, Shaw, J. L., Pate, B. B., & Feygelson, T. I. Sub-band gap photo-enhanced secondary electron emission from high-purity single-crystal chemical-vapor-deposited diamond. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4941020.
Yater, J. E., E-mail: joan.yater@nrl.navy.mil, Shaw, J. L., Pate, B. B., and Feygelson, T. I. Sun . "Sub-band gap photo-enhanced secondary electron emission from high-purity single-crystal chemical-vapor-deposited diamond". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4941020.
@article{osti_22494991,
title = {Sub-band gap photo-enhanced secondary electron emission from high-purity single-crystal chemical-vapor-deposited diamond},
author = {Yater, J. E., E-mail: joan.yater@nrl.navy.mil and Shaw, J. L. and Pate, B. B. and Feygelson, T. I.},
abstractNote = {Secondary-electron-emission (SEE) current measured from high-purity, single-crystal (100) chemical-vapor-deposited diamond is found to increase when sub-band gap (3.06 eV) photons are incident on the hydrogenated surface. Although the light does not produce photoemission directly, the SEE current increases by more than a factor of 2 before saturating with increasing laser power. In energy distribution curves (EDCs), the emission peak shows a corresponding increase in intensity with increasing laser power. However, the emission-onset energy in the EDCs remains constant, indicating that the bands are pinned at the surface. On the other hand, changes are observed on the high-energy side of the distribution as the laser power increases, with a well-defined shoulder becoming more pronounced. From an analysis of this feature in the EDCs, it is deduced that upward band bending is present in the near-surface region during the SEE measurements and this band bending suppresses the SEE yield. However, sub-band gap photon illumination reduces the band bending and thereby increases the SEE current. Because the bands are pinned at the surface, we conclude that the changes in the band levels occur below the surface in the electron transport region. Sample heating produces similar effects as observed with sub-band gap photon illumination, namely, an increase in SEE current and a reduction in band bending. However, the upward band bending is not fully removed by either increasing laser power or temperature, and a minimum band bending of ∼0.8 eV is established in both cases. The sub-band gap photo-excitation mechanism is under further investigation, although it appears likely at present that defect or gap states play a role in the photo-enhanced SEE process. In the meantime, the study demonstrates the ability of visible light to modify the electronic properties of diamond and enhance the emission capabilities, which may have potential impact for diamond-based vacuum electron sources, particle detectors, and other electronic devices.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4941020},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 5,
volume = 119,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Feb 07 00:00:00 EST 2016},
month = {Sun Feb 07 00:00:00 EST 2016}
}
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