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Title: Resonant plasmonic terahertz detection in vertical graphene-base hot-electron transistors

Abstract

We analyze dynamic properties of vertical graphene-base hot-electron transistors (GB-HETs) and consider their operation as detectors of terahertz (THz) radiation using the developed device model. The GB-HET model accounts for the tunneling electron injection from the emitter, electron propagation across the barrier layers with the partial capture into the GB, and the self-consistent oscillations of the electric potential and the hole density in the GB (plasma oscillations), as well as the quantum capacitance and the electron transit-time effects. Using the proposed device model, we calculate the responsivity of GB-HETs operating as THz detectors as a function of the signal frequency, applied bias voltages, and the structural parameters. The inclusion of the plasmonic effect leads to the possibility of the GB-HET operation at the frequencies significantly exceeding those limited by the characteristic RC-time. It is found that the responsivity of GB-HETs with a sufficiently perfect GB exhibits sharp resonant maxima in the THz range of frequencies associated with the excitation of plasma oscillations. The positions of these maxima are controlled by the applied bias voltages. The GB-HETs can compete with and even surpass other plasmonic THz detectors.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)
  2. (Russian Federation)
  3. Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Aizu, Aizu-Wakamatsu 965-8580 (Japan)
  4. Department of Electrical Engineering, University at Buffalo, SUNY, Buffalo, New York 1460-1920 (United States)
  5. Department of Electrical, Computer, and System Engineering and Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22492974
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 118; Journal Issue: 20; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; CAPACITANCE; DEPLETION LAYER; ELECTRIC POTENTIAL; ELECTRON BEAM INJECTION; ELECTRONS; GRAPHENE; HOLES; PLASMA WAVES; SIGNALS; THZ RANGE; TRANSISTORS

Citation Formats

Ryzhii, V., Center for Photonics and Infrared Engineering, Bauman Moscow State Technical University and Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics of RAS, Moscow 111005, Otsuji, T., Ryzhii, M., Mitin, V., and Shur, M. S.. Resonant plasmonic terahertz detection in vertical graphene-base hot-electron transistors. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4936265.
Ryzhii, V., Center for Photonics and Infrared Engineering, Bauman Moscow State Technical University and Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics of RAS, Moscow 111005, Otsuji, T., Ryzhii, M., Mitin, V., & Shur, M. S.. Resonant plasmonic terahertz detection in vertical graphene-base hot-electron transistors. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4936265.
Ryzhii, V., Center for Photonics and Infrared Engineering, Bauman Moscow State Technical University and Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics of RAS, Moscow 111005, Otsuji, T., Ryzhii, M., Mitin, V., and Shur, M. S.. Sat . "Resonant plasmonic terahertz detection in vertical graphene-base hot-electron transistors". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4936265.
@article{osti_22492974,
title = {Resonant plasmonic terahertz detection in vertical graphene-base hot-electron transistors},
author = {Ryzhii, V. and Center for Photonics and Infrared Engineering, Bauman Moscow State Technical University and Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics of RAS, Moscow 111005 and Otsuji, T. and Ryzhii, M. and Mitin, V. and Shur, M. S.},
abstractNote = {We analyze dynamic properties of vertical graphene-base hot-electron transistors (GB-HETs) and consider their operation as detectors of terahertz (THz) radiation using the developed device model. The GB-HET model accounts for the tunneling electron injection from the emitter, electron propagation across the barrier layers with the partial capture into the GB, and the self-consistent oscillations of the electric potential and the hole density in the GB (plasma oscillations), as well as the quantum capacitance and the electron transit-time effects. Using the proposed device model, we calculate the responsivity of GB-HETs operating as THz detectors as a function of the signal frequency, applied bias voltages, and the structural parameters. The inclusion of the plasmonic effect leads to the possibility of the GB-HET operation at the frequencies significantly exceeding those limited by the characteristic RC-time. It is found that the responsivity of GB-HETs with a sufficiently perfect GB exhibits sharp resonant maxima in the THz range of frequencies associated with the excitation of plasma oscillations. The positions of these maxima are controlled by the applied bias voltages. The GB-HETs can compete with and even surpass other plasmonic THz detectors.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4936265},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 20,
volume = 118,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Nov 28 00:00:00 EST 2015},
month = {Sat Nov 28 00:00:00 EST 2015}
}
  • We propose and analyze the concept of the vertical hot-electron terahertz (THz) graphene-layer detectors (GLDs) based on the double-GL and multiple-GL structures with the barrier layers made of materials with a moderate conduction band off-set (such as tungsten disulfide and related materials). The operation of these detectors is enabled by the thermionic emissions from the GLs enhanced by the electrons heated by incoming THz radiation. Hence, these detectors are the hot-electron bolometric detectors. The electron heating is primarily associated with the intraband absorption (the Drude absorption). In the frame of the developed model, we calculate the responsivity and detectivity asmore » functions of the photon energy, GL doping, and the applied voltage for the GLDs with different number of GLs. The detectors based on the cascade multiple-GL structures can exhibit a substantial photoelectric gain resulting in the elevated responsivity and detectivity. The advantages of the THz detectors under consideration are associated with their high sensitivity to the normal incident radiation and efficient operation at room temperature at the low end of the THz frequency range. Such GLDs with a metal grating, supporting the excitation of plasma oscillations in the GL-structures by the incident THz radiation, can exhibit a strong resonant response at the frequencies of several THz (in the range, where the operation of the conventional detectors based on A{sub 3}B{sub 5} materials, in particular, THz quantum-well detectors, is hindered due to a strong optical phonon radiation absorption in such materials). We also evaluate the characteristics of GLDs in the mid- and far-infrared ranges where the electron heating is due to the interband absorption in GLs.« less
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  • The ability to manipulate plasma waves in the two-dimensional-(2D)-electron-gas based plasmonic crystals is investigated in this work. It is demonstrated that the plasmon resonance of 2D plasmonic crystal can be tuned easily at terahertz frequency due to the wavevector quantization induced by the size effect. After calculating self-consistently by taking into account several potential mechanisms for the resonant damping of plasma waves, it can be concluded that the plasmon-plasmon scattering plays the dominant role. Based on the calculations, we can predict the scattering or inter-excitation among the oblique plasmons in the 2D crystal. The results can be extended to studymore » 2D-electron-gas plasmonic waveguides, terahertz modulators, and detectors with electrostatic gating.« less
  • Abstract not provided.
  • Resonance detection of terahertz radiation by submicrometer field-effect GaAs/AlGaAs transistors (with the gate length L = 250 nm) with two-dimensional electron gas in the channel has been studied at T = 4.2 K. For these transistors, it is shown for the first time that the maximum of the response (the drain-source photovoltage) shifts with an increasing frequency to the region of higher gate voltages in accordance with the Dyakonov-Shur theory. It is shown that, as temperature is increased to 77 K, the dependence of the photovoltage on the gate voltage becomes nonresonant, which is caused by a decrease in themore » mobility.« less