skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation

Abstract

Low-dimensional materials, due to their unique and versatile properties, are very interesting for numerous applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Recently rediscovered black phosphorus, with a graphite-like layered structure, can be effectively exfoliated up to the single atomic layer called phosphorene. Contrary to graphene, it possesses a direct band gap controllable by the number of stacked atomic layers. For those reasons, black phosphorus is now intensively investigated and can complement or replace graphene in various photonics and electronics applications. Here, we demonstrate that black phosphorus can serve as a broadband saturable absorber and can be used for ultrashort optical pulse generation. The mechanically exfoliated ∼300 nm thick layers of black phosphorus were transferred onto the fiber core, and under pulsed excitation at 1560 nm wavelength, its transmission increases by 4.6%. We have demonstrated that the saturable absorption of black phosphorus is polarization sensitive. The fabricated device was used to mode-lock an Er-doped fiber laser. The generated optical solitons with the 10.2 nm bandwidth and 272 fs duration were centered at 1550 nm. The obtained results unambiguously show that black phosphorus can be effectively used for ultrashort pulse generation with performances similar or even better than currently used graphene or carbon nanotubes. This application of blackmore » phosphorus proves its great potential to future practical use in photonics.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]; ;  [2]
  1. Laser and Fiber Electronics Group, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, Wroclaw 50-370 (Poland)
  2. Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, Wroclaw 50-372 (Poland)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22489049
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 107; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; CARBON NANOTUBES; DOPED MATERIALS; EXCITATION; GRAPHENE; GRAPHITE; LAYERS; PHOSPHORUS; POLARIZATION; PULSES; WAVELENGTHS

Citation Formats

Sotor, J., E-mail: jaroslaw.sotor@pwr.edu.pl, Sobon, G., Abramski, K. M., Macherzynski, W., and Paletko, P. Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4927673.
Sotor, J., E-mail: jaroslaw.sotor@pwr.edu.pl, Sobon, G., Abramski, K. M., Macherzynski, W., & Paletko, P. Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4927673.
Sotor, J., E-mail: jaroslaw.sotor@pwr.edu.pl, Sobon, G., Abramski, K. M., Macherzynski, W., and Paletko, P. 2015. "Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4927673.
@article{osti_22489049,
title = {Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation},
author = {Sotor, J., E-mail: jaroslaw.sotor@pwr.edu.pl and Sobon, G. and Abramski, K. M. and Macherzynski, W. and Paletko, P.},
abstractNote = {Low-dimensional materials, due to their unique and versatile properties, are very interesting for numerous applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Recently rediscovered black phosphorus, with a graphite-like layered structure, can be effectively exfoliated up to the single atomic layer called phosphorene. Contrary to graphene, it possesses a direct band gap controllable by the number of stacked atomic layers. For those reasons, black phosphorus is now intensively investigated and can complement or replace graphene in various photonics and electronics applications. Here, we demonstrate that black phosphorus can serve as a broadband saturable absorber and can be used for ultrashort optical pulse generation. The mechanically exfoliated ∼300 nm thick layers of black phosphorus were transferred onto the fiber core, and under pulsed excitation at 1560 nm wavelength, its transmission increases by 4.6%. We have demonstrated that the saturable absorption of black phosphorus is polarization sensitive. The fabricated device was used to mode-lock an Er-doped fiber laser. The generated optical solitons with the 10.2 nm bandwidth and 272 fs duration were centered at 1550 nm. The obtained results unambiguously show that black phosphorus can be effectively used for ultrashort pulse generation with performances similar or even better than currently used graphene or carbon nanotubes. This application of black phosphorus proves its great potential to future practical use in photonics.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4927673},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 5,
volume = 107,
place = {United States},
year = 2015,
month = 8
}
  • An erbium-doped fibre laser operating in self-mode-locked regime achieved with the help of a saturable absorber based on single-wall carbon nanotubes synthesised by the arc-discharge method is fabricated and studied. Due to the development of an original method for preparing samples, films of the optical quality containing individual single-wall carbon nanotubes were synthesised. The study of the dependence of resonance absorption at a wavelength of 1.5 {mu}m on the laser radiation intensity transmitted through a film showed that these films have nonlinear transmission and can be used in fibre lasers as saturable absorbers to provide self-mode locking. Stable transform-limited pulsesmore » having the shape of optical solitons were generated at a wavelength of 1557.5 nm in the laser with a ring resonator. The pulse duration was 1.13 ps at a pulse repetition rate of 20.5 MHz. The continuous output power achieved 1.1 mW upon pumping by a 25-mW laser diode at 980 nm. (lasers)« less
  • A rhodamine 6G-DODCl dye solution was used as the gain medium and the saturable absorber was contained in a variable-gap dye cell in contact with a high reflectivity mirror.(AIP)
  • We reported on the femtosecond pulse generation from an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser by using microfiber-based gold nanorods (GNRs) as saturable absorber (SA). By virtue of the geometric characteristic of microfiber-based GNRs, the optical damage threshold of GNRs-SA could be greatly enhanced. The microfiber-based GNRs-SA shows a modulation depth of 4.9% and a nonsaturable loss of 21.1%. With the proposed GNRs-SA, the fiber laser emitted a mode-locked pulse train with duration of ∼887 fs. The obtained results demonstrated that the GNRs deposited microfiber could indeed serve as a high-performance SA towards the practical applications in the field of ultrafast photonics.
  • The width of XeCl laser pulse from a discharge laser has been ''temporally tuned'' from 5 ns to less than 500 ps using saturable absorber dyes. A maximum pulse shortening of roughly-equal20 has been achieved in a single pass, single stage saturable absorber pulse compression scheme. Pulse shortening characteristics were found to be reproducible for single shot and repetition rate operation.