skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: SU-E-U-02: The Development of a Practical Ultrasonic System for Cross-Sectional Imaging of Small Animals

Abstract

Purpose: To test the feasibility of developing a practical medium frequency ultrasound tomography method for small animal imaging. The ability to produce cross-sectional or full body images of a live small animal using a low-cost tabletop ultrasound scanner without any special license would be very beneficial to long term biological studies, where repeated scanning is often required over an extended period of time. Methods: The cross sectional images were produced by compounding multiple B-scans of a laboratory phantom or an animal acquired at different projection angles. Two imaging systems were used to test the concept. The first system included a programmable 64-channel phased array controller driving a 128-channel, 5–10 MHz linear probe to produce 143 B-Mode projections of the spinning object. The second system designed and manufactured in house, produced 64 or 128 B-Mode projections with a single unfocused 8 MHz transducer scanning with a 0.116 mm step size. Results: The phased array system provided good penetration through the phantoms/mice (with the exception of the lungs) and allowed to acquire data in a very short time. The cross-sectional images have enough resolution and dynamic range to detect both high- and low-contrast organs. The single transducer system takes longer to scan,more » and the data require more sophisticated processing. To date, our images allow seeing details as small as 1–2 mm in the phantoms and in small animals, with the contrast mostly due to highly reflecting bones and air inclusions. Conclusion: The work indicates that very detailed and anatomically correct images can be created by relatively simple and inexpensive means. With more advanced algorithms and improved system design, scan time can be reduced considerably, enabling high-resolution full 3D imaging. This will allow for quick and easy scans that can help monitor tumor growth and/or regression without contributing any dose to the animal. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial and engineering support from Tessonics.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [3];  [5];  [6];  [1];  [2];  [4];  [6];  [6]
  1. Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)
  2. (United States)
  3. Karmanos Cancer Institute - International Imaging Center, Detroit, MI (United States)
  4. (United Kingdom)
  5. True Phantoms Solutions, Windsor, ON (Canada)
  6. (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22486707
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 42; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ALGORITHMS; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; DESIGN; IMAGES; LUNGS; MICE; NEOPLASMS; PHANTOMS; RADIATION DOSES; SKELETON; TOMOGRAPHY

Citation Formats

Kamp, J, Karmanos Cancer Institute - International Imaging Center, Detroit, MI, Malyarenko, E, Tessonics Corp, Birmingham, MI, Chen, D, Wydra, A, University of Windsor - Institute for Diagnostic Imaging Research, Windsor, ON, Maev, R, Karmanos Cancer Institute - International Imaging Center, Detroit, MI, Tessonics Corp, Birmingham, MI, True Phantoms Solutions, Windsor, ON, and University of Windsor - Institute for Diagnostic Imaging Research, Windsor, ON. SU-E-U-02: The Development of a Practical Ultrasonic System for Cross-Sectional Imaging of Small Animals. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4923995.
Kamp, J, Karmanos Cancer Institute - International Imaging Center, Detroit, MI, Malyarenko, E, Tessonics Corp, Birmingham, MI, Chen, D, Wydra, A, University of Windsor - Institute for Diagnostic Imaging Research, Windsor, ON, Maev, R, Karmanos Cancer Institute - International Imaging Center, Detroit, MI, Tessonics Corp, Birmingham, MI, True Phantoms Solutions, Windsor, ON, & University of Windsor - Institute for Diagnostic Imaging Research, Windsor, ON. SU-E-U-02: The Development of a Practical Ultrasonic System for Cross-Sectional Imaging of Small Animals. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4923995.
Kamp, J, Karmanos Cancer Institute - International Imaging Center, Detroit, MI, Malyarenko, E, Tessonics Corp, Birmingham, MI, Chen, D, Wydra, A, University of Windsor - Institute for Diagnostic Imaging Research, Windsor, ON, Maev, R, Karmanos Cancer Institute - International Imaging Center, Detroit, MI, Tessonics Corp, Birmingham, MI, True Phantoms Solutions, Windsor, ON, and University of Windsor - Institute for Diagnostic Imaging Research, Windsor, ON. Mon . "SU-E-U-02: The Development of a Practical Ultrasonic System for Cross-Sectional Imaging of Small Animals". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4923995.
@article{osti_22486707,
title = {SU-E-U-02: The Development of a Practical Ultrasonic System for Cross-Sectional Imaging of Small Animals},
author = {Kamp, J and Karmanos Cancer Institute - International Imaging Center, Detroit, MI and Malyarenko, E and Tessonics Corp, Birmingham, MI and Chen, D and Wydra, A and University of Windsor - Institute for Diagnostic Imaging Research, Windsor, ON and Maev, R and Karmanos Cancer Institute - International Imaging Center, Detroit, MI and Tessonics Corp, Birmingham, MI and True Phantoms Solutions, Windsor, ON and University of Windsor - Institute for Diagnostic Imaging Research, Windsor, ON},
abstractNote = {Purpose: To test the feasibility of developing a practical medium frequency ultrasound tomography method for small animal imaging. The ability to produce cross-sectional or full body images of a live small animal using a low-cost tabletop ultrasound scanner without any special license would be very beneficial to long term biological studies, where repeated scanning is often required over an extended period of time. Methods: The cross sectional images were produced by compounding multiple B-scans of a laboratory phantom or an animal acquired at different projection angles. Two imaging systems were used to test the concept. The first system included a programmable 64-channel phased array controller driving a 128-channel, 5–10 MHz linear probe to produce 143 B-Mode projections of the spinning object. The second system designed and manufactured in house, produced 64 or 128 B-Mode projections with a single unfocused 8 MHz transducer scanning with a 0.116 mm step size. Results: The phased array system provided good penetration through the phantoms/mice (with the exception of the lungs) and allowed to acquire data in a very short time. The cross-sectional images have enough resolution and dynamic range to detect both high- and low-contrast organs. The single transducer system takes longer to scan, and the data require more sophisticated processing. To date, our images allow seeing details as small as 1–2 mm in the phantoms and in small animals, with the contrast mostly due to highly reflecting bones and air inclusions. Conclusion: The work indicates that very detailed and anatomically correct images can be created by relatively simple and inexpensive means. With more advanced algorithms and improved system design, scan time can be reduced considerably, enabling high-resolution full 3D imaging. This will allow for quick and easy scans that can help monitor tumor growth and/or regression without contributing any dose to the animal. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial and engineering support from Tessonics.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4923995},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 6,
volume = 42,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2015},
month = {Mon Jun 15 00:00:00 EDT 2015}
}
  • Time of Flight Diffraction and Imaging (ToFDI) is a new technique utilizing a sparse array of transducers and signal processing to improve B-Scan output and create a cross-sectional image of a sample. This paper describes preliminary work demonstrating the concept, including; Finite Element Modelling (FEM), basic processing, likely applications. The eventual aim is for fast and automated detection, identification, positioning and sizing for all defects in a sample with known basic characteristics, such as bulk and shear elastic moduli.
  • Lihong V. Wang: Photoacoustic tomography (PAT), combining non-ionizing optical and ultrasonic waves via the photoacoustic effect, provides in vivo multiscale functional, metabolic, and molecular imaging. Broad applications include imaging of the breast, brain, skin, esophagus, colon, vascular system, and lymphatic system in humans or animals. Light offers rich contrast but does not penetrate biological tissue in straight paths as x-rays do. Consequently, high-resolution pure optical imaging (e.g., confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and optical coherence tomography) is limited to penetration within the optical diffusion limit (∼1 mm in the skin). Ultrasonic imaging, on the contrary, provides fine spatial resolution but suffersmore » from both poor contrast in early-stage tumors and strong speckle artifacts. In PAT, pulsed laser light penetrates tissue and generates a small but rapid temperature rise, which induces emission of ultrasonic waves due to thermoelastic expansion. The ultrasonic waves, orders of magnitude less scattering than optical waves, are then detected to form high-resolution images of optical absorption at depths up to 7 cm, conquering the optical diffusion limit. PAT is the only modality capable of imaging across the length scales of organelles, cells, tissues, and organs (up to whole-body small animals) with consistent contrast. This rapidly growing technology promises to enable multiscale biological research and accelerate translation from microscopic laboratory discoveries to macroscopic clinical practice. PAT may also hold the key to label-free early detection of cancer by in vivo quantification of hypermetabolism, the quintessential hallmark of malignancy. Learning Objectives: To understand the contrast mechanism of PAT To understand the multiscale applications of PAT Benjamin M. W. Tsui: Multi-modality molecular imaging instrumentation and techniques have been major developments in small animal imaging that has contributed significantly to biomedical research during the past decade. The initial development was an extension of clinical PET/CT and SPECT/CT from human to small animals and combine the unique functional information obtained from PET and SPECT with anatomical information provided by the CT in registered multi-modality images. The requirements to image a mouse whose size is an order of magnitude smaller than that of a human have spurred advances in new radiation detector technologies, novel imaging system designs and special image reconstruction and processing techniques. Examples are new detector materials and designs with high intrinsic resolution, multi-pinhole (MPH) collimator design for much improved resolution and detection efficiency compared to the conventional collimator designs in SPECT, 3D high-resolution and artifact-free MPH and sparse-view image reconstruction techniques, and iterative image reconstruction methods with system response modeling for resolution recovery and image noise reduction for much improved image quality. The spatial resolution of PET and SPECT has improved from ∼6–12 mm to ∼1 mm a few years ago to sub-millimeter today. A recent commercial small animal SPECT system has achieved a resolution of ∼0.25 mm which surpasses that of a state-of-art PET system whose resolution is limited by the positron range. More recently, multimodality SA PET/MRI and SPECT/MRI systems have been developed in research laboratories. Also, multi-modality SA imaging systems that include other imaging modalities such as optical and ultrasound are being actively pursued. In this presentation, we will provide a review of the development, recent advances and future outlook of multi-modality molecular imaging of small animals. Learning Objectives: To learn about the two major multi-modality molecular imaging techniques of small animals. To learn about the spatial resolution achievable by the molecular imaging systems for small animal today. To learn about the new multi-modality imaging instrumentation and techniques that are being developed. Sang Hyun Cho; X-ray fluorescence (XRF) imaging, such as x-ray fluorescence computed tomography (XFCT), offers unique capabilities for accurate identification and quantification of metals within the imaging objects. As a result, it has emerged as a promising quantitative imaging modality in recent years, especially in conjunction with metal-based imaging probes. This talk will familiarize the audience with the basic principles of XRF/XFCT imaging. It will also cover the latest development of benchtop XFCT technology. Additionally, the use of metallic nanoparticles such as gold nanoparticles, in conjunction with benchtop XFCT, will be discussed within the context of preclinical multimodal multiplexed molecular imaging. Learning Objectives: To learn the basic principles of XRF/XFCT imaging To learn the latest advances in benchtop XFCT development for preclinical imaging Funding support received from NIH and DOD; Funding support received from GE Healthcare; Funding support received from Siemens AX; Patent royalties received from GE Healthcare; L. Wang, Funding Support: NIH; COI: Microphotoacoustics; S. Cho, Yes: ;NIH/NCI grant R01CA155446 DOD/PCRP grant W81XWH-12-1-0198.« less
  • A novel combined imaging system for small animals using dilute concentrations of iodine as a contrast agent was developed for wide and pencil photon beam image acquisitions. This combined imaging system used K-edge subtraction (KES) and fluorescence subtraction imaging (FSI) and was tested at the Hard x-ray Microanalysis beamline at the Canadian Light Source. The initial wide beam KES image acquired with a charge-coupled device camera was used to identify regions of interest for further investigation and determine the location and area of the raster scan for pencil beam imaging. The pencil photon beam scanning mode acquired simultaneously KES andmore » FSI measurements with an ionization chamber measuring the KES data and a multielement germanium detector measuring the FSI data. A description of the system is given as well as preliminary results using an iodine test object.« less
  • Purpose: To develop a physics-based model for accurate quantification of the cross-sectional area (CSA) of coronary arteries in CT angiography by measuring the integrated density to account for the partial volume effect. Methods: In this technique the integrated density of the object as compared with its local background is measured to account for the partial volume effect. Normal vessels were simulated as circles with diameters in the range of 0.1–3mm. Diseased vessels were simulated as 2, 3, and 4mm diameter vessels with 10–90% area stenosis, created by inserting circular plaques. A simplified two material model was used with the lumenmore » as 8mg/ml Iodine and background as lipid. The contrast-to-noise ratio between lumen and background was approximately 26. Linear fits to the known CSA were calculated. The precision and accuracy of the measurement were quantified using the root-mean-square fit deviations (RMSD) and errors to the known CSA (RMSE). Results compared to manual segmentation of the vessel lumen. To assess the impact of random variations, coefficients of variation (CV) from 10 simulations for each vessel were computed to determine reliability. Measurements with CVs less than 10% were considered reliable. Results: For normal vessels, the precision and accuracy of the integrated density technique were 0.12mm{sup 2} and 0.28mm{sup 2}, respectively. The corresponding results for manual segmentation were 0.27mm{sup 2} and 0.43mm{sup 2}. For diseased vessels, the precision and accuracy of the integrated density technique were 0.14mm{sup 2} and 0.19mm{sup 2}. Corresponding results for manual segmentation were 0.42mm{sup 2} and 0.71mm{sup 2}. Reliable CSAs were obtained for normal vessels with diameters larger than 1 mm and for diseased vessels with area as low as 1.26mm2. Conclusion: The CSA based on integrated density showed improved precision and accuracy as compared with manual segmentation in simulation. These results indicate the potential of using integrated density to quantify CSA of coronary arteries in CT angiography.« less
  • Purpose: To provide information pertaining to IROC Houston QA Center's (RPC) credentialing process for institutions participating in NCI-sponsored clinical trials. Methods: IROC Houston issues credentials for NCI sponsored study groups. Requirements for credentialing might include any combination of questionnaires, knowledge assessment forms, benchmarks, or phantom irradiations. Credentialing requirements for specific protocols can be found on IROC Houston's website (irochouston.mdanderson.org). The website also houses the credentialing status inquiry (CSI) form. Once an institution has reviewed the protocol's credentialing requirements, a CSI form should be completed and submitted to IROC Houston. This form is used both to request whether requirements have beenmore » met as well as to notify IROC Houston that the institution requests credentialing for a specific protocol. IROC Houston will contact the institution to discuss any delinquent requirements. Once the institution has met all requirements IROC Houston issues a credentialing letter to the institution and will inform study groups and other IROC offices of the credentials. Institutions can all phone the IROC Houston office to initiate credentialing or ask any credentialing related questions. Results: Since 2010 IROC has received 1313 credentialing status inquiry forms. We received 317 in 2010, 266 in 2011, 324 in 2012, and 406 in 2013. On average we receive 35 phone calls per week with multiple types of credentialing questions. Decisions regarding credentialing status are based on the protocol specifications and previous completed credentialing by the institution. In some cases, such as for general IMRT credentialing, up to 5 sites may be credentialed based on the credentialing of one main center. Each of these situations is handled individually. Conclusion: IROC Houston will issue radiation therapy credentials for the NCI trials in the National Clinical Trials Network. Credentialing requirements and the CSI form can be found online at the IROC Houston's website. Work supported by PHS grant CA10953 and CA081647 (NCI, DHHS)« less