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Title: Highly multiplexible thermal kinetic inductance detectors for x-ray imaging spectroscopy

Abstract

For X-ray imaging spectroscopy, high spatial resolution over a large field of view is often as important as high energy resolution, but current X-ray detectors do not provide both in the same device. Thermal Kinetic Inductance Detectors (TKIDs) are being developed as they offer a feasible way to combine the energy resolution of transition edge sensors with pixel counts approaching CCDs and thus promise significant improvements for many X-ray spectroscopy applications. TKIDs are a variation of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) and share their multiplexibility: working MKID arrays with 2024 pixels have recently been demonstrated and much bigger arrays are under development. In this work, we present a TKID prototype, which is able to achieve an energy resolution of 75 eV at 5.9 keV, even though its general design still has to be optimized. We further describe TKID fabrication, characterization, multiplexing, and working principle and demonstrate the necessity of a data fitting algorithm in order to extract photon energies. With further design optimizations, we expect to be able to improve our TKID energy resolution to less than 10 eV at 5.9 keV.

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)
  2. NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22483079
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 106; Journal Issue: 25; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; CHARGE-COUPLED DEVICES; CURRENTS; DESIGN; ENERGY RESOLUTION; EQUIPMENT; EV RANGE; FABRICATION; KEV RANGE 01-10; OPTIMIZATION; PHOTONS; SENSORS; SPATIAL RESOLUTION; X RADIATION; X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Ulbricht, Gerhard, E-mail: ulbricht@physics.ucsb.edu, Mazin, Benjamin A., Szypryt, Paul, Walter, Alex B., Bockstiegel, Clint, and Bumble, Bruce. Highly multiplexible thermal kinetic inductance detectors for x-ray imaging spectroscopy. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4923096.
Ulbricht, Gerhard, E-mail: ulbricht@physics.ucsb.edu, Mazin, Benjamin A., Szypryt, Paul, Walter, Alex B., Bockstiegel, Clint, & Bumble, Bruce. Highly multiplexible thermal kinetic inductance detectors for x-ray imaging spectroscopy. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4923096.
Ulbricht, Gerhard, E-mail: ulbricht@physics.ucsb.edu, Mazin, Benjamin A., Szypryt, Paul, Walter, Alex B., Bockstiegel, Clint, and Bumble, Bruce. 2015. "Highly multiplexible thermal kinetic inductance detectors for x-ray imaging spectroscopy". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4923096.
@article{osti_22483079,
title = {Highly multiplexible thermal kinetic inductance detectors for x-ray imaging spectroscopy},
author = {Ulbricht, Gerhard, E-mail: ulbricht@physics.ucsb.edu and Mazin, Benjamin A. and Szypryt, Paul and Walter, Alex B. and Bockstiegel, Clint and Bumble, Bruce},
abstractNote = {For X-ray imaging spectroscopy, high spatial resolution over a large field of view is often as important as high energy resolution, but current X-ray detectors do not provide both in the same device. Thermal Kinetic Inductance Detectors (TKIDs) are being developed as they offer a feasible way to combine the energy resolution of transition edge sensors with pixel counts approaching CCDs and thus promise significant improvements for many X-ray spectroscopy applications. TKIDs are a variation of Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs) and share their multiplexibility: working MKID arrays with 2024 pixels have recently been demonstrated and much bigger arrays are under development. In this work, we present a TKID prototype, which is able to achieve an energy resolution of 75 eV at 5.9 keV, even though its general design still has to be optimized. We further describe TKID fabrication, characterization, multiplexing, and working principle and demonstrate the necessity of a data fitting algorithm in order to extract photon energies. With further design optimizations, we expect to be able to improve our TKID energy resolution to less than 10 eV at 5.9 keV.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4923096},
journal = {Applied Physics Letters},
number = 25,
volume = 106,
place = {United States},
year = 2015,
month = 6
}
  • Aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) sensitive to millimeter-wave photons have been shown to exhibit high quality factors, making them highly sensitive and multiplexable. The superconducting gap of aluminum limits aluminum LEKIDs to photon frequencies above 100 GHz. Manganese-doped aluminum (Al-Mn) has a tunable critical temperature and could therefore be an attractive material for LEKIDs sensitive to frequencies below 100 GHz if the internal quality factor remains sufficiently high when manganese is added to the film. To investigate, we measured some of the key properties of Al-Mn LEKIDs. A prototype eight-element LEKID array was fabricated using a 40 nm thickmore » film of Al-Mn deposited on a 500 μm thick high-resistivity, float-zone silicon substrate. The manganese content was 900 ppm, the measured T c = 694 ± 1mK, and the resonance frequencies were near 150 MHz. Using measurements of the forward scattering parameter S 21 at various bath temperatures between 65 and 250 mK, we determined that the Al-Mn LEKIDs we fabricated have internal quality factors greater than 2 × 10 5, which is high enough for millimeter-wave astrophysical observations. In the dark conditions under which these devices were measured, the fractional frequency noise spectrum shows a shallow slope that depends on bath temperature and probe tone amplitude, which could be two-level system noise. In conclusion, the anticipated white photon noise should dominate this level of low-frequency noise when the detectors are illuminated with millimeter-waves in future measurements. The LEKIDs responded to light pulses from a 1550 nm light-emitting diode, and we used these light pulses to determine that the quasiparticle lifetime is 60 μs.« less
  • The surface impedance of a superconductor changes when energy is absorbed and Cooper pairs are broken to produce single electron (quasiparticle) excitations. This change may be sensitively measured using a thin-film resonant circuit called a microwave kinetic inductance detector (MKID). The practical application of MKIDs for photon detection requires a method of efficiently coupling the photon energy to the MKID. The authors present results on position sensitive x-ray detectors made by using two aluminum MKIDs on either side of a tantalum photon absorber strip. Diffusion constants, recombination times, and energy resolution are reported. MKIDs can easily be scaled into largemore » arrays.« less
  • We demonstrate position and energy-resolved phonon-mediated detection of particle interactions in a silicon substrate instrumented with an array of microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs). The relative magnitude and delay of the signal received in each sensor allow the location of the interaction to be determined with < or approx. 1mm resolution at 30 keV. Using this position information, variations in the detector response with position can be removed, and an energy resolution of {sigma}{sub E} = 0.55 keV at 30 keV was measured. Since MKIDs can be fabricated from a single deposited film and are naturally multiplexed in the frequencymore » domain, this technology can be extended to provide highly pixelized athermal phonon sensors for {approx}1 kg scale detector elements. Such high-resolution, massive particle detectors would be applicable to rare-event searches such as the direct detection of dark matter, neutrinoless double-beta decay, or coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering.« less
  • Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) have shown great potential for sub-mm instrumentation because of the high scalability of the technology. Here, we demonstrate for the first time in the sub-mm band (0.1-2 mm) a photon noise limited performance of a small antenna coupled MKID detector array and we describe the relation between photon noise and MKID intrinsic generation-recombination noise. Additionally, we use the observed photon noise to measure the optical efficiency of detectors to be 0.8 {+-} 0.2.