skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Edge multi-energy soft x-ray diagnostic in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

Abstract

A multi-energy soft x-ray (ME-SXR) diagnostic has been built for electron temperature profile in the edge plasma region in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) after two rounds of campaigns. Originally, five preamplifiers were mounted inside the EAST vacuum vessel chamber attached to five vertically stacked compact diode arrays. A custom mechanical structure was designed to protect the detectors and electronics under constraints of the tangential field of view for plasma edge and the allocation of space. In the next experiment, the mechanical structure was redesigned with a barrel structure to absolutely isolate it from the vacuum vessel. Multiple shielding structures were mounted at the pinhole head to protect the metal foils from lithium coating. The pre-amplifiers were moved to the outside of the vacuum chamber to avoid introducing interference. Twisted copper cooling tube was embedded into the back-shell near the diode to limit the temperature of the preamplifiers and diode arrays during vacuum vessel baking when the temperature reached 150 °C. Electron temperature profiles were reconstructed from ME-SXR measurements using neural networks.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)
  2. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)
  3. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-4575 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22482647
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 86; Journal Issue: 12; Other Information: (c) 2015 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; BAKING; COOLING; COPPER; ELECTRON TEMPERATURE; HT-7U TOKAMAK; LITHIUM; NEURAL NETWORKS; PLASMA; PREAMPLIFIERS; SHIELDING; SOFT X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Li, Y. L., Xu, G. S., Wan, B. N., Lan, H., Liu, Y. L., Wei, J., Zhang, W., Hu, G. H., Wang, H. Q., Duan, Y. M., Zhao, J. L., Wang, L., Liu, S. C., Ye, Y., Li, J., Lin, X., Li, X. L., Tritz, K., and Zhu, Y. B. Edge multi-energy soft x-ray diagnostic in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4938155.
Li, Y. L., Xu, G. S., Wan, B. N., Lan, H., Liu, Y. L., Wei, J., Zhang, W., Hu, G. H., Wang, H. Q., Duan, Y. M., Zhao, J. L., Wang, L., Liu, S. C., Ye, Y., Li, J., Lin, X., Li, X. L., Tritz, K., & Zhu, Y. B. Edge multi-energy soft x-ray diagnostic in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4938155.
Li, Y. L., Xu, G. S., Wan, B. N., Lan, H., Liu, Y. L., Wei, J., Zhang, W., Hu, G. H., Wang, H. Q., Duan, Y. M., Zhao, J. L., Wang, L., Liu, S. C., Ye, Y., Li, J., Lin, X., Li, X. L., Tritz, K., and Zhu, Y. B. 2015. "Edge multi-energy soft x-ray diagnostic in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4938155.
@article{osti_22482647,
title = {Edge multi-energy soft x-ray diagnostic in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak},
author = {Li, Y. L. and Xu, G. S. and Wan, B. N. and Lan, H. and Liu, Y. L. and Wei, J. and Zhang, W. and Hu, G. H. and Wang, H. Q. and Duan, Y. M. and Zhao, J. L. and Wang, L. and Liu, S. C. and Ye, Y. and Li, J. and Lin, X. and Li, X. L. and Tritz, K. and Zhu, Y. B.},
abstractNote = {A multi-energy soft x-ray (ME-SXR) diagnostic has been built for electron temperature profile in the edge plasma region in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) after two rounds of campaigns. Originally, five preamplifiers were mounted inside the EAST vacuum vessel chamber attached to five vertically stacked compact diode arrays. A custom mechanical structure was designed to protect the detectors and electronics under constraints of the tangential field of view for plasma edge and the allocation of space. In the next experiment, the mechanical structure was redesigned with a barrel structure to absolutely isolate it from the vacuum vessel. Multiple shielding structures were mounted at the pinhole head to protect the metal foils from lithium coating. The pre-amplifiers were moved to the outside of the vacuum chamber to avoid introducing interference. Twisted copper cooling tube was embedded into the back-shell near the diode to limit the temperature of the preamplifiers and diode arrays during vacuum vessel baking when the temperature reached 150 °C. Electron temperature profiles were reconstructed from ME-SXR measurements using neural networks.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4938155},
journal = {Review of Scientific Instruments},
number = 12,
volume = 86,
place = {United States},
year = 2015,
month =
}
  • The detector circuit is the core component of filter polychromator which is used for scattering light analysis in Thomson scattering diagnostic, and is responsible for the precision and stability of a system. High signal-to-noise and stability are primary requirements for the diagnostic. Recently, an upgraded detector circuit for weak light detecting in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) edge Thomson scattering system has been designed, which can be used for the measurement of large electron temperature (T{sub e}) gradient and low electron density (n{sub e}). In this new circuit, a thermoelectric-cooled avalanche photodiode with the aid circuit is involved for increasingmore » stability and enhancing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), especially the circuit will never be influenced by ambient temperature. These features are expected to improve the accuracy of EAST Thomson diagnostic dramatically. Related mechanical construction of the circuit is redesigned as well for heat-sinking and installation. All parameters are optimized, and SNR is dramatically improved. The number of minimum detectable photons is only 10.« less
  • Analyses of x-ray (SXR) emission from tokamak plasmas provide valuable information about magnetohydrodynamics activities and transport phenomena. In this study, design and optimization of the SXR detector arrays were performed for the KSTAR (Korea superconducting tokamak advanced research) device. Geometrical arrangement of the array system was made by coverage mapping and tomographic reconstruction tests. The space-time tomography algorithm was developed for KSTAR-like plasmas using the fast maximum entropy method combined with singular value decomposition. Spatial setup of the components in each detector array was determined and optimized by geometrical calculation. A curved beryllium window and a developed cooling system willmore » be mounted on the detector arrays. Due to the existence of the complex structures between outer vessel and passive stabilizers, each array is designed to be miniaturized. Hardware-optimization of the array system was cross-checked with the tomographic test results.« less
  • To investigate the fast ion behavior, a fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic system has been planned and is presently under development on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. The greatest challenges for the design of a FIDA diagnostic are its extremely low intensity levels, which are usually significantly below the continuum radiation level and several orders of magnitude below the bulk-ion thermal charge-exchange feature. Moreover, an overlaying Motional Stark Effect (MSE) feature in exactly the same wavelength range can interfere. The simulation of spectra code is used here to guide the design and evaluate the diagnostic performance. The details for the parametersmore » of design and hardware are presented.« less
  • The design, calibration, and installation of disruption halo current sensors for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak are described in this article. All the sensors are Rogowski coils that surround conducting structures, and all the signals are analog integrated. Coils with two different cross-section sizes have been fabricated, and their mutual inductances are calibrated. Sensors have been installed to measure halo currents in several different parts of both the upper divertor (tungsten) and lower divertor (graphite) at several toroidal locations. Initial measurements from disruptions show that the halo current diagnostics are working well.
  • A filterscope diagnostic system has been mounted to observe the line emission and visible bremsstrahlung emission from plasma on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak during the 2014 campaign. By this diagnostic system, multiple wavelengths including D{sub α} (656.1 nm), D{sub γ} (433.9 nm), He II (468.5 nm), Li I (670.8 nm), Li II (548.3 nm), C III (465.0 nm), O II (441.5 nm), Mo I (386.4 nm), W I (400.9 nm), and visible bremsstrahlung radiation (538.0 nm) are monitored with corresponding wavelength filters. All these multi-channel signals are digitized at up to 200 kHz simultaneously. This diagnostic plays a crucialmore » role in studying edge localized modes and H-mode plasmas, due to the high temporal resolution and spatial resolution that have been designed into it.« less