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Title: Geometric validation of self-gating k-space-sorted 4D-MRI vs 4D-CT using a respiratory motion phantom

Abstract

Purpose: MRI is increasingly being used for radiotherapy planning, simulation, and in-treatment-room motion monitoring. To provide more detailed temporal and spatial MR data for these tasks, we have recently developed a novel self-gated (SG) MRI technique with advantage of k-space phase sorting, high isotropic spatial resolution, and high temporal resolution. The current work describes the validation of this 4D-MRI technique using a MRI- and CT-compatible respiratory motion phantom and comparison to 4D-CT. Methods: The 4D-MRI sequence is based on a spoiled gradient echo-based 3D projection reconstruction sequence with self-gating for 4D-MRI at 3 T. Respiratory phase is resolved by using SG k-space lines as the motion surrogate. 4D-MRI images are reconstructed into ten temporal bins with spatial resolution 1.56 × 1.56 × 1.56 mm{sup 3}. A MRI-CT compatible phantom was designed to validate the performance of the 4D-MRI sequence and 4D-CT imaging. A spherical target (diameter 23 mm, volume 6.37 ml) filled with high-concentration gadolinium (Gd) gel is embedded into a plastic box (35 × 40 × 63 mm{sup 3}) and stabilized with low-concentration Gd gel. The phantom, driven by an air pump, is able to produce human-type breathing patterns between 4 and 30 respiratory cycles/min. 4D-CT of the phantommore » has been acquired in cine mode, and reconstructed into ten phases with slice thickness 1.25 mm. The 4D images sets were imported into a treatment planning software for target contouring. The geometrical accuracy of the 4D MRI and CT images has been quantified using target volume, flattening, and eccentricity. The target motion was measured by tracking the centroids of the spheres in each individual phase. Motion ground-truth was obtained from input signals and real-time video recordings. Results: The dynamic phantom has been operated in four respiratory rate (RR) settings, 6, 10, 15, and 20/min, and was scanned with 4D-MRI and 4D-CT. 4D-CT images have target-stretching, partial-missing, and other motion artifacts in various phases, whereas the 4D-MRI images are visually free of those artifacts. Volume percentage difference for the 6.37 ml target ranged from 5.3% ± 4.3% to 10.3% ± 5.9% for 4D-CT, and 1.47 ± 0.52 to 2.12 ± 1.60 for 4D-MRI. With an increase of respiratory rate, the target volumetric and geometric deviations increase for 4D-CT images while remaining stable for the 4D-MRI images. Target motion amplitude errors at different RRs were measured with a range of 0.66–1.25 mm for 4D-CT and 0.2–0.42 mm for 4D-MRI. The results of Mann–Whitney tests indicated that 4D-MRI significantly outperforms 4D-CT in phase-based target volumetric (p = 0.027) and geometric (p < 0.001) measures. Both modalities achieve equivalent accuracy in measuring motion amplitude (p = 0.828). Conclusions: The k-space self-gated 4D-MRI technique provides a robust method for accurately imaging phase-based target motion and geometry. Compared to 4D-CT, the current 4D-MRI technique demonstrates superior spatiotemporal resolution, and robust resistance to motion artifacts caused by fast target motion and irregular breathing patterns. The technique can be used extensively in abdominal targeting, motion gating, and toward implementing MRI-based adaptive radiotherapy.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]; ;  [2]; ;  [3]
  1. Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 (United States)
  2. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 (United States)
  3. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California 90048 and Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22482342
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 42; Journal Issue: 10; Other Information: (c) 2015 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BIOMEDICAL RADIOGRAPHY; COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY; IMAGE PROCESSING; NMR IMAGING; PHANTOMS; RADIOTHERAPY; SPATIAL RESOLUTION

Citation Formats

Yue, Yong, E-mail: yong.yue@cshs.org, Yang, Wensha, McKenzie, Elizabeth, Tuli, Richard, Wallace, Robert, Fraass, Benedick, Fan, Zhaoyang, Pang, Jianing, Deng, Zixin, and Li, Debiao. Geometric validation of self-gating k-space-sorted 4D-MRI vs 4D-CT using a respiratory motion phantom. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1118/1.4929552.
Yue, Yong, E-mail: yong.yue@cshs.org, Yang, Wensha, McKenzie, Elizabeth, Tuli, Richard, Wallace, Robert, Fraass, Benedick, Fan, Zhaoyang, Pang, Jianing, Deng, Zixin, & Li, Debiao. Geometric validation of self-gating k-space-sorted 4D-MRI vs 4D-CT using a respiratory motion phantom. United States. doi:10.1118/1.4929552.
Yue, Yong, E-mail: yong.yue@cshs.org, Yang, Wensha, McKenzie, Elizabeth, Tuli, Richard, Wallace, Robert, Fraass, Benedick, Fan, Zhaoyang, Pang, Jianing, Deng, Zixin, and Li, Debiao. Thu . "Geometric validation of self-gating k-space-sorted 4D-MRI vs 4D-CT using a respiratory motion phantom". United States. doi:10.1118/1.4929552.
@article{osti_22482342,
title = {Geometric validation of self-gating k-space-sorted 4D-MRI vs 4D-CT using a respiratory motion phantom},
author = {Yue, Yong, E-mail: yong.yue@cshs.org and Yang, Wensha and McKenzie, Elizabeth and Tuli, Richard and Wallace, Robert and Fraass, Benedick and Fan, Zhaoyang and Pang, Jianing and Deng, Zixin and Li, Debiao},
abstractNote = {Purpose: MRI is increasingly being used for radiotherapy planning, simulation, and in-treatment-room motion monitoring. To provide more detailed temporal and spatial MR data for these tasks, we have recently developed a novel self-gated (SG) MRI technique with advantage of k-space phase sorting, high isotropic spatial resolution, and high temporal resolution. The current work describes the validation of this 4D-MRI technique using a MRI- and CT-compatible respiratory motion phantom and comparison to 4D-CT. Methods: The 4D-MRI sequence is based on a spoiled gradient echo-based 3D projection reconstruction sequence with self-gating for 4D-MRI at 3 T. Respiratory phase is resolved by using SG k-space lines as the motion surrogate. 4D-MRI images are reconstructed into ten temporal bins with spatial resolution 1.56 × 1.56 × 1.56 mm{sup 3}. A MRI-CT compatible phantom was designed to validate the performance of the 4D-MRI sequence and 4D-CT imaging. A spherical target (diameter 23 mm, volume 6.37 ml) filled with high-concentration gadolinium (Gd) gel is embedded into a plastic box (35 × 40 × 63 mm{sup 3}) and stabilized with low-concentration Gd gel. The phantom, driven by an air pump, is able to produce human-type breathing patterns between 4 and 30 respiratory cycles/min. 4D-CT of the phantom has been acquired in cine mode, and reconstructed into ten phases with slice thickness 1.25 mm. The 4D images sets were imported into a treatment planning software for target contouring. The geometrical accuracy of the 4D MRI and CT images has been quantified using target volume, flattening, and eccentricity. The target motion was measured by tracking the centroids of the spheres in each individual phase. Motion ground-truth was obtained from input signals and real-time video recordings. Results: The dynamic phantom has been operated in four respiratory rate (RR) settings, 6, 10, 15, and 20/min, and was scanned with 4D-MRI and 4D-CT. 4D-CT images have target-stretching, partial-missing, and other motion artifacts in various phases, whereas the 4D-MRI images are visually free of those artifacts. Volume percentage difference for the 6.37 ml target ranged from 5.3% ± 4.3% to 10.3% ± 5.9% for 4D-CT, and 1.47 ± 0.52 to 2.12 ± 1.60 for 4D-MRI. With an increase of respiratory rate, the target volumetric and geometric deviations increase for 4D-CT images while remaining stable for the 4D-MRI images. Target motion amplitude errors at different RRs were measured with a range of 0.66–1.25 mm for 4D-CT and 0.2–0.42 mm for 4D-MRI. The results of Mann–Whitney tests indicated that 4D-MRI significantly outperforms 4D-CT in phase-based target volumetric (p = 0.027) and geometric (p < 0.001) measures. Both modalities achieve equivalent accuracy in measuring motion amplitude (p = 0.828). Conclusions: The k-space self-gated 4D-MRI technique provides a robust method for accurately imaging phase-based target motion and geometry. Compared to 4D-CT, the current 4D-MRI technique demonstrates superior spatiotemporal resolution, and robust resistance to motion artifacts caused by fast target motion and irregular breathing patterns. The technique can be used extensively in abdominal targeting, motion gating, and toward implementing MRI-based adaptive radiotherapy.},
doi = {10.1118/1.4929552},
journal = {Medical Physics},
number = 10,
volume = 42,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Oct 15 00:00:00 EDT 2015},
month = {Thu Oct 15 00:00:00 EDT 2015}
}
  • Purpose: 4D-CT is often limited by motion artifacts, low temporal resolution, and poor phase-based target definition. We recently developed a novel k-space self-gated 4D-MRI technique with high spatial and temporal resolution. The goal here is to geometrically validate 4D-MRI using a MRI-CT compatible respiratory motion phantom and comparison to 4D-CT. Methods: 4D-MRI was acquired using 3T spoiled gradient echo-based 3D projection sequences. Respiratory phases were resolved using self-gated k-space lines as the motion surrogate. Images were reconstructed into 10 temporal bins with 1.56×1.56×1.56mm3. A MRI-CT compatible phantom was designed with a 23mm diameter ball target filled with highconcentration gadolinium(Gd) gelmore » embedded in a 35×40×63mm3 plastic box stabilized with low-concentration Gd gel. The whole phantom was driven by an air pump. Human respiratory motion was mimicked using the controller from a commercial dynamic phantom (RSD). Four breathing settings (rates/depths: 10s/20mm, 6s/15mm, 4s/10mm, 3s/7mm) were scanned with 4D-MRI and 4D-CT (slice thickness 1.25mm). Motion ground-truth was obtained from input signals and real-time video recordings. Reconstructed images were imported into Eclipse(Varian) for target contouring. Volumes and target positions were compared with ground-truth. Initial human study was investigated on a liver patient. Results: 4D-MRI and 4D-CT scans for the different breathing cycles were reconstructed with 10 phases. Target volume in each phase was measured for both 4D-CT and 4D-MRI. Volume percentage difference for the 6.37ml target ranged from 6.67±5.33 to 11.63±5.57 for 4D-CT and from 1.47±0.52 to 2.12±1.60 for 4D-MRI. The Mann-Whitney U-test shows the 4D-MRI is significantly superior to 4D-CT (p=0.021) for phase-based target definition. Centroid motion error ranges were 1.35–1.25mm (4D-CT), and 0.31–0.12mm (4D-MRI). Conclusion: The k-space self-gated 4D-MRI we recently developed can accurately determine phase-based target volume while avoiding typical motion artifacts found in 4D-CT, and is being further studied for use in GI targeting and motion management. This work supported in part by grant 1R03CA173273-01.« less
  • Purpose: Dynamic MRI has been used to quantify respiratory motion of abdominal organs in radiation treatment planning. Many existing 4D-MRI methods based on 2D acquisitions suffer from limited slice resolution and additional stitching artifacts when evaluated in 3D{sup 1}. To address these issues, we developed a 4D-MRI (3D dynamic) technique with true 3D k-space encoding and respiratory motion self-gating. Methods: The 3D k-space was acquired using a Rotating Cartesian K-space (ROCK) pattern, where the Cartesian grid was reordered in a quasi-spiral fashion with each spiral arm rotated using golden angle{sup 2}. Each quasi-spiral arm started with the k-space center-line, whichmore » were used as self-gating{sup 3} signal for respiratory motion estimation. The acquired k-space data was then binned into 8 respiratory phases and the golden angle ensures a near-uniform k-space sampling in each phase. Finally, dynamic 3D images were reconstructed using the ESPIRiT technique{sup 4}. 4D-MRI was performed on 6 healthy volunteers, using the following parameters (bSSFP, Fat-Sat, TE/TR=2ms/4ms, matrix size=500×350×120, resolution=1×1×1.2mm, TA=5min, 8 respiratory phases). Supplemental 2D real-time images were acquired in 9 different planes. Dynamic locations of the diaphragm dome and left kidney were measured from both 4D and 2D images. The same protocol was also performed on a MRI-compatible motion phantom where the motion was programmed with different amplitude (10–30mm) and frequency (3–10/min). Results: High resolution 4D-MRI were obtained successfully in 5 minutes. Quantitative motion measurements from 4D-MRI agree with the ones from 2D CINE (<5% error). The 4D images are free of the stitching artifacts and their near-isotropic resolution facilitates 3D visualization and segmentation of abdominal organs such as the liver, kidney and pancreas. Conclusion: Our preliminary studies demonstrated a novel ROCK 4D-MRI technique with true 3D k-space encoding and respiratory motion self-gating. The technique leads to high-resolution and artifacts-free 4D images for improved abdominal organ motion studies. K.S acknowledges funding support from NIH R01CA188300.« less
  • Purpose: A recent 4D MRI technique based on 3D radial sampling and self-gating-based K-space sorting has shown promising results in characterizing respiratory motion. However due to continuous acquisition and potentially drastic k-space undersampling resultant images could suffer from low blood-to-tissue contrast and streaking artifacts. In this study 3D radial sampling with slab-selective excitation (SS) was proposed in attempt to enhance blood-to-tissue contrast by exploiting the in-flow effect and to suppress the excess signal from the peripheral structures particularly in the superior-inferior direction. The feasibility of improving image quality by using this approach was investigated through a comparison with the previouslymore » developed non-selective excitation (NS) approach. Methods: Two excitation approaches SS and NS were compared in 5 cancer patients (1 lung 1 liver 2 pancreas and 1 esophagus) at 3Tesla. Image artifact was assessed in all patients on a 4-point scale (0: poor; 3: excellent). Signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) of the blood vessel (aorta) at the center of field-of-view and its nearby tissue were measured in 3 of the 5 patients (1 liver 2 pancreas) and blood-to-tissue contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were then determined. Results: Compared with NS the image quality of SS was visually improved with overall higher signal in all patients (2.6±0.55 vs. 3.4±0.55). SS showed an approximately 2-fold increase of SNR in the blood (aorta: 16.39±1.95 vs. 32.19±7.93) and slight increase in the surrounding tissue (liver/pancreas: 16.91±1.82 vs. 22.31±3.03). As a result the blood-totissue CNR was dramatically higher in the SS method (1.20±1.20 vs. 9.87±6.67). Conclusion: The proposed 3D radial sampling with slabselective excitation allows for reduced image artifact and improved blood SNR and blood-to-tissue CNR. The success of this technique could potentially benefit patients with cancerous tumors that have invaded the surrounding blood vessels where radiation therapy is needed to remove tumor from those regions prior to surgical resection. This work is partially supported by NIH R03CA173273; and CTSI core voucher award.« less
  • Purpose: To develop an automatic markerless 4D-CBCT projection sorting technique by using a patient respiratory motion model extracted from the planning 4D-CT images. Methods: Each phase of onboard 4D-CBCT is considered as a deformation of one phase of the prior planning 4D-CT. The deformation field map (DFM) is represented as a linear combination of three major deformation patterns extracted from the planning 4D-CT using principle component analysis (PCA). The coefficients of the PCA deformation patterns are solved by matching the digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) of the deformed volume to the onboard projection acquired. The PCA coefficients are solved for eachmore » single projection, and are used for phase sorting. Projections at the peaks of the Z direction coefficient are sorted as phase 1 and other projections are assigned into 10 phase bins by dividing phases equally between peaks. The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom was used to evaluate the proposed technique. Three scenarios were simulated, with different tumor motion amplitude (3cm to 2cm), tumor spatial shift (8mm SI), and tumor body motion phase shift (2 phases) from prior to on-board images. Projections were simulated over 180 degree scan-angle for the 4D-XCAT. The percentage of accurately binned projections across entire dataset was calculated to represent the phase sorting accuracy. Results: With a changed tumor motion amplitude from 3cm to 2cm, markerless phase sorting accuracy was 100%. With a tumor phase shift of 2 phases w.r.t. body motion, the phase sorting accuracy was 100%. With a tumor spatial shift of 8mm in SI direction, phase sorting accuracy was 86.1%. Conclusion: The XCAT phantom simulation results demonstrated that it is feasible to use prior knowledge and motion modeling technique to achieve markerless 4D-CBCT phase sorting. National Institutes of Health Grant No. R01-CA184173 Varian Medical System.« less
  • Purpose: There are very few commercial 4D phantoms that are marketed as MRI compatible. We are evaluating one such commercial phantom, made to be used with an MRI-Linear accelerator. The focus of this work is to characterize the geometric distortions produced in this phantom at 3T using 3 clinical MR pulse sequences. Methods: The CIRS MRI-Linac Dynamic Phantom (CIRSTM) under investigation in this study consists of a softwaredriven moving tumour volume within a thorax phantom body and enables dose accumulation by placing a dosimeter within the tumour volume. Our initial investigation is to evaluate the phantom in static mode priormore » to examining its 4D capability. The water-filled thorax phantom was scanned using a wide-bore Philips 3T Achieva MRI scanner employing a Thoracic xl coil and clinical 2D T1W FFE, 2D T1W TSE and 3D T1W TFE pulse sequences. Each of the MR image sets was rigidly fused with a reference CT image of the phantom employing a rigid registration with 6 degrees of freedom. Geometric distortions between the MR and CT image sets were measured in 3 dimensions at selected points along the periphery of the distortion grid embedded within the phantom body (11.5, 7.5 and 3 cm laterally, ant/post and sup/inf of magnetic isocenter respectively). Results: The maximal measured geometric distortions between the MR and reference CT points of interest were 0.9, 1.8 and 1.3 mm in the lateral, anteriorposterior and cranio-caudal directions, respectively. For all 3 spatial dimensions, the maximal distortions occurred for the FFE pulse sequence. Maximal distortions for the 2D FFE, 2D TSE and 3D TFE sequences were 1, 0.7 and 1.8 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Our initial static investigation of this phantom shows minimal geometric distortions at 3T along the periphery of the embedded grid. CIRS has provided us with a phantom at no charge for evaluation at 3 Tesla.« less