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Title: Morphology and structural development of reduced anatase-TiO{sub 2} by pure Ti powder upon annealing and nitridation: Synthesis of TiO{sub x} and TiO{sub x}N{sub y} powders

Abstract

It is well known that nitriding of titanium is suitable for surface coating of biomaterials and in other applications such as anti-reflective coating, while oxygen-rich titanium oxynitride has been applied in thin film resistors and photocatalysis. Thus in this work anatase was reduced with pure titanium powder during annealing in argon. This was done to avoid any metallic contamination and unwanted residual metal doping. As a result, interesting and different types of particle morphology were synthesized when the pre-milled elemental anatase and titanium powders were mixed. The formation of metastable face centred cubic and monoclinic titanium monoxide was detected by the X-ray diffraction technique. The phases were confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Raman analysis revealed weak intensity peaks for samples annealed in argon as compared to those annealed under nitrogen. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Reaction of TiO{sub 2} and Ti induced metastable FCC and monoclinic TiO{sub x}. • Compositions of mixed powder were prepared from the unmilled and pre-milled powders. • Nitridation of TiO{sub x} yielded TiO{sub x}N{sub y} phase. • Mixed morphology was observed on all three powder samples.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3]; ;  [1]
  1. Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag x 17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa)
  2. (South Africa)
  3. DST/CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22476030
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Materials Characterization; Journal Volume: 100; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; ANNEALING; FCC LATTICES; MONOCLINIC LATTICES; NITRIDATION; PHOTOCATALYSIS; POWDERS; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SURFACE COATING; SYNTHESIS; THIN FILMS; TITANIUM; TITANIUM OXIDES; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Bolokang, A.S., E-mail: Sylvester.Bolokang@transnet.net, DST/CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001, Transnet Engineering, Product Development, Private Bag X 528, Kilnerpark 0127, Motaung, D.E., E-mail: dmotaung@csir.co.za, Arendse, C.J., and Muller, T.F.G. Morphology and structural development of reduced anatase-TiO{sub 2} by pure Ti powder upon annealing and nitridation: Synthesis of TiO{sub x} and TiO{sub x}N{sub y} powders. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2014.11.026.
Bolokang, A.S., E-mail: Sylvester.Bolokang@transnet.net, DST/CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001, Transnet Engineering, Product Development, Private Bag X 528, Kilnerpark 0127, Motaung, D.E., E-mail: dmotaung@csir.co.za, Arendse, C.J., & Muller, T.F.G. Morphology and structural development of reduced anatase-TiO{sub 2} by pure Ti powder upon annealing and nitridation: Synthesis of TiO{sub x} and TiO{sub x}N{sub y} powders. United States. doi:10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2014.11.026.
Bolokang, A.S., E-mail: Sylvester.Bolokang@transnet.net, DST/CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001, Transnet Engineering, Product Development, Private Bag X 528, Kilnerpark 0127, Motaung, D.E., E-mail: dmotaung@csir.co.za, Arendse, C.J., and Muller, T.F.G. Sun . "Morphology and structural development of reduced anatase-TiO{sub 2} by pure Ti powder upon annealing and nitridation: Synthesis of TiO{sub x} and TiO{sub x}N{sub y} powders". United States. doi:10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2014.11.026.
@article{osti_22476030,
title = {Morphology and structural development of reduced anatase-TiO{sub 2} by pure Ti powder upon annealing and nitridation: Synthesis of TiO{sub x} and TiO{sub x}N{sub y} powders},
author = {Bolokang, A.S., E-mail: Sylvester.Bolokang@transnet.net and DST/CSIR National Centre for Nano-Structured Materials, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001 and Transnet Engineering, Product Development, Private Bag X 528, Kilnerpark 0127 and Motaung, D.E., E-mail: dmotaung@csir.co.za and Arendse, C.J. and Muller, T.F.G.},
abstractNote = {It is well known that nitriding of titanium is suitable for surface coating of biomaterials and in other applications such as anti-reflective coating, while oxygen-rich titanium oxynitride has been applied in thin film resistors and photocatalysis. Thus in this work anatase was reduced with pure titanium powder during annealing in argon. This was done to avoid any metallic contamination and unwanted residual metal doping. As a result, interesting and different types of particle morphology were synthesized when the pre-milled elemental anatase and titanium powders were mixed. The formation of metastable face centred cubic and monoclinic titanium monoxide was detected by the X-ray diffraction technique. The phases were confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Raman analysis revealed weak intensity peaks for samples annealed in argon as compared to those annealed under nitrogen. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Reaction of TiO{sub 2} and Ti induced metastable FCC and monoclinic TiO{sub x}. • Compositions of mixed powder were prepared from the unmilled and pre-milled powders. • Nitridation of TiO{sub x} yielded TiO{sub x}N{sub y} phase. • Mixed morphology was observed on all three powder samples.},
doi = {10.1016/J.MATCHAR.2014.11.026},
journal = {Materials Characterization},
number = ,
volume = 100,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2015},
month = {Sun Feb 15 00:00:00 EST 2015}
}