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Title: Nuclear proteins hijacked by mammalian cytoplasmic plus strand RNA viruses

Abstract

Plus strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm face challenges in supporting the numerous biosynthetic functions required for replication and propagation. Most of these viruses are genetically simple and rely heavily on co-opting cellular proteins, particularly cellular RNA-binding proteins, into new roles for support of virus infection at the level of virus-specific translation, and building RNA replication complexes. In the course of infectious cycles many nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling proteins of mostly nuclear distribution are detained in the cytoplasm by viruses and re-purposed for their own gain. Many mammalian viruses hijack a common group of the same factors. This review summarizes recent gains in our knowledge of how cytoplasmic RNA viruses use these co-opted host nuclear factors in new functional roles supporting virus translation and virus RNA replication and common themes employed between different virus groups. - Highlights: • Nuclear shuttling host proteins are commonly hijacked by RNA viruses to support replication. • A limited group of ubiquitous RNA binding proteins are commonly hijacked by a broad range of viruses. • Key virus proteins alter roles of RNA binding proteins in different stages of virus replication.

Authors:
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22470170
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Virology; Journal Volume: 479-480; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; CYTOPLASM; DISTRIBUTION; GAIN; HEPATITIS; POLIO VIRUS; PROTEINS; REVIEWS; RNA

Citation Formats

Lloyd, Richard E., E-mail: rlloyd@bcm.edu. Nuclear proteins hijacked by mammalian cytoplasmic plus strand RNA viruses. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1016/J.VIROL.2015.03.001.
Lloyd, Richard E., E-mail: rlloyd@bcm.edu. Nuclear proteins hijacked by mammalian cytoplasmic plus strand RNA viruses. United States. doi:10.1016/J.VIROL.2015.03.001.
Lloyd, Richard E., E-mail: rlloyd@bcm.edu. Fri . "Nuclear proteins hijacked by mammalian cytoplasmic plus strand RNA viruses". United States. doi:10.1016/J.VIROL.2015.03.001.
@article{osti_22470170,
title = {Nuclear proteins hijacked by mammalian cytoplasmic plus strand RNA viruses},
author = {Lloyd, Richard E., E-mail: rlloyd@bcm.edu},
abstractNote = {Plus strand RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm face challenges in supporting the numerous biosynthetic functions required for replication and propagation. Most of these viruses are genetically simple and rely heavily on co-opting cellular proteins, particularly cellular RNA-binding proteins, into new roles for support of virus infection at the level of virus-specific translation, and building RNA replication complexes. In the course of infectious cycles many nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling proteins of mostly nuclear distribution are detained in the cytoplasm by viruses and re-purposed for their own gain. Many mammalian viruses hijack a common group of the same factors. This review summarizes recent gains in our knowledge of how cytoplasmic RNA viruses use these co-opted host nuclear factors in new functional roles supporting virus translation and virus RNA replication and common themes employed between different virus groups. - Highlights: • Nuclear shuttling host proteins are commonly hijacked by RNA viruses to support replication. • A limited group of ubiquitous RNA binding proteins are commonly hijacked by a broad range of viruses. • Key virus proteins alter roles of RNA binding proteins in different stages of virus replication.},
doi = {10.1016/J.VIROL.2015.03.001},
journal = {Virology},
number = ,
volume = 479-480,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2015},
month = {Fri May 15 00:00:00 EDT 2015}
}
  • There are no known RNA viruses that infect Archaea. Filling this gap in our knowledge of viruses will enhance our understanding of the relationships between RNA viruses from the three domains of cellular life and, in particular, could shed light on the origin of the enormous diversity of RNA viruses infecting eukaryotes. We describe here the identification of novel RNA viral genome segments from high-temperature acidic hot springs in Yellowstone National Park in the United States. These hot springs harbor low-complexity cellular communities dominated by several species of hyperthermophilic Archaea. A viral metagenomics approach was taken to assemble segments ofmore » these RNA virus genomes from viral populations isolated directly from hot spring samples. Analysis of these RNA metagenomes demonstrated unique gene content that is not generally related to known RNA viruses of Bacteria and Eukarya. However, genes for RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), a hallmark of positive-strand RNA viruses, were identified in two contigs. One of these contigs is approximately 5,600 nucleotides in length and encodes a polyprotein that also contains a region homologous to the capsid protein of nodaviruses, tetraviruses, and birnaviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of the RdRps encoded in these contigs indicate that the putative archaeal viruses form a unique group that is distinct from the RdRps of RNA viruses of Eukarya and Bacteria. Collectively, our findings suggest the existence of novel positive-strand RNA viruses that probably replicate in hyperthermophilic archaeal hosts and are highly divergent from RNA viruses that infect eukaryotes and even more distant from known bacterial RNA viruses. These positive-strand RNA viruses might be direct ancestors of RNA viruses of eukaryotes.« less
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  • No abstract prepared.