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Title: Ultrastructure of the replication sites of positive-strand RNA viruses

Abstract

Positive strand RNA viruses replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells and induce intracellular membranous compartments harboring the sites of viral RNA synthesis. These replication factories are supposed to concentrate the components of the replicase and to shield replication intermediates from the host cell innate immune defense. Virus induced membrane alterations are often generated in coordination with host factors and can be grouped into different morphotypes. Recent advances in conventional and electron microscopy have contributed greatly to our understanding of their biogenesis, but still many questions remain how viral proteins capture membranes and subvert host factors for their need. In this review, we will discuss different representatives of positive strand RNA viruses and their ways of hijacking cellular membranes to establish replication complexes. We will further focus on host cell factors that are critically involved in formation of these membranes and how they contribute to viral replication. - Highlights: • Positive strand RNA viruses induce massive membrane alterations. • Despite the great diversity, replication complexes share many similarities. • Host factors play a pivotal role in replication complex biogenesis. • Use of the same host factors by several viruses hints to similar functions.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22470169
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Virology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 479-480; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0042-6822
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; COMPARTMENTS; CYTOPLASM; ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; HOST; MEMBRANES; PROTEINS; REVIEWS; RNA; SYNTHESIS; VIRUSES

Citation Formats

Harak, Christian, and Lohmann, Volker, E-mail: volker_lohmann@med.uni-heidelberg.de. Ultrastructure of the replication sites of positive-strand RNA viruses. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1016/J.VIROL.2015.02.029.
Harak, Christian, & Lohmann, Volker, E-mail: volker_lohmann@med.uni-heidelberg.de. Ultrastructure of the replication sites of positive-strand RNA viruses. United States. doi:10.1016/J.VIROL.2015.02.029.
Harak, Christian, and Lohmann, Volker, E-mail: volker_lohmann@med.uni-heidelberg.de. Fri . "Ultrastructure of the replication sites of positive-strand RNA viruses". United States. doi:10.1016/J.VIROL.2015.02.029.
@article{osti_22470169,
title = {Ultrastructure of the replication sites of positive-strand RNA viruses},
author = {Harak, Christian and Lohmann, Volker, E-mail: volker_lohmann@med.uni-heidelberg.de},
abstractNote = {Positive strand RNA viruses replicate in the cytoplasm of infected cells and induce intracellular membranous compartments harboring the sites of viral RNA synthesis. These replication factories are supposed to concentrate the components of the replicase and to shield replication intermediates from the host cell innate immune defense. Virus induced membrane alterations are often generated in coordination with host factors and can be grouped into different morphotypes. Recent advances in conventional and electron microscopy have contributed greatly to our understanding of their biogenesis, but still many questions remain how viral proteins capture membranes and subvert host factors for their need. In this review, we will discuss different representatives of positive strand RNA viruses and their ways of hijacking cellular membranes to establish replication complexes. We will further focus on host cell factors that are critically involved in formation of these membranes and how they contribute to viral replication. - Highlights: • Positive strand RNA viruses induce massive membrane alterations. • Despite the great diversity, replication complexes share many similarities. • Host factors play a pivotal role in replication complex biogenesis. • Use of the same host factors by several viruses hints to similar functions.},
doi = {10.1016/J.VIROL.2015.02.029},
journal = {Virology},
issn = {0042-6822},
number = ,
volume = 479-480,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {5}
}