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Title: Live attenuated vaccines: Historical successes and current challenges

Abstract

Live attenuated vaccines against human viral diseases have been amongst the most successful cost effective interventions in medical history. Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980; poliomyelitis is nearing global eradication and measles has been controlled in most parts of the world. Vaccines function well for acute diseases such as these but chronic infections such as HIV are more challenging for reasons of both likely safety and probable efficacy. The derivation of the vaccines used has in general not been purely rational except in the sense that it has involved careful clinical trials of candidates and subsequent careful follow up in clinical use; the identification of the candidates is reviewed. - Highlights: • Live vaccines against human diseases caused by viruses have been very successful. • They have been developed by empirical clinical studies and problems identified in later use. • It can be difficult to balance ability to cause disease and ability to immunise for a strain. • There is currently no reliable basis for predicting success from pure virological studies. • Vaccinia, which eradicated smallpox, is the paradigm for all successes and issues.

Authors:
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22470168
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Virology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 479-480; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0042-6822
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; AIDS VIRUS; CLINICAL TRIALS; FEVER; GLOBAL ASPECTS; HUMAN POPULATIONS; MEASLES; POLIOMYELITIS; REVIEWS; STRAINS; VACCINES

Citation Formats

Minor, Philip D., E-mail: Philip.Minor@nibsc.org. Live attenuated vaccines: Historical successes and current challenges. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1016/J.VIROL.2015.03.032.
Minor, Philip D., E-mail: Philip.Minor@nibsc.org. Live attenuated vaccines: Historical successes and current challenges. United States. doi:10.1016/J.VIROL.2015.03.032.
Minor, Philip D., E-mail: Philip.Minor@nibsc.org. Fri . "Live attenuated vaccines: Historical successes and current challenges". United States. doi:10.1016/J.VIROL.2015.03.032.
@article{osti_22470168,
title = {Live attenuated vaccines: Historical successes and current challenges},
author = {Minor, Philip D., E-mail: Philip.Minor@nibsc.org},
abstractNote = {Live attenuated vaccines against human viral diseases have been amongst the most successful cost effective interventions in medical history. Smallpox was declared eradicated in 1980; poliomyelitis is nearing global eradication and measles has been controlled in most parts of the world. Vaccines function well for acute diseases such as these but chronic infections such as HIV are more challenging for reasons of both likely safety and probable efficacy. The derivation of the vaccines used has in general not been purely rational except in the sense that it has involved careful clinical trials of candidates and subsequent careful follow up in clinical use; the identification of the candidates is reviewed. - Highlights: • Live vaccines against human diseases caused by viruses have been very successful. • They have been developed by empirical clinical studies and problems identified in later use. • It can be difficult to balance ability to cause disease and ability to immunise for a strain. • There is currently no reliable basis for predicting success from pure virological studies. • Vaccinia, which eradicated smallpox, is the paradigm for all successes and issues.},
doi = {10.1016/J.VIROL.2015.03.032},
journal = {Virology},
issn = {0042-6822},
number = ,
volume = 479-480,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {5}
}