# Quantum compositeness of gravity: black holes, AdS and inflation

## Abstract

Gravitational backgrounds, such as black holes, AdS, de Sitter and inflationary universes, should be viewed as composite of N soft constituent gravitons. It then follows that such systems are close to quantum criticality of graviton Bose-gas to Bose-liquid transition. Generic properties of the ordinary metric description, including geodesic motion or particle-creation in the background metric, emerge as the large-N limit of quantum scattering of constituent longitudinal gravitons. We show that this picture correctly accounts for physics of large and small black holes in AdS, as well as reproduces well-known inflationary predictions for cosmological parameters. However, it anticipates new effects not captured by the standard semi-classical treatment. In particular, we predict observable corrections that are sensitive to the inflationary history way beyond last 60 e-foldings. We derive an absolute upper bound on the number of e-foldings, beyond which neither de Sitter nor inflationary Universe can be approximated by a semi-classical metric. However, they could in principle persist in a new type of quantum eternity state. We discuss implications of this phenomenon for the cosmological constant problem.

- Authors:

- Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Department für Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Theresienstr. 37, 80333 München (Germany)
- (Germany)
- (United States)
- (Spain)

- Publication Date:

- Sponsoring Org.:
- SCOAP3, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

- OSTI Identifier:
- 22454490

- Resource Type:
- Journal Article

- Journal Name:
- Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics

- Additional Journal Information:
- Journal Volume: 2014; Journal Issue: 01; Other Information: PUBLISHER-ID: JCAP01(2014)023; OAI: oai:repo.scoap3.org:1035; Article funded by SCOAP3. Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 1475-7516

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; APPROXIMATIONS; BLACK HOLES; BOSE-EINSTEIN GAS; COSMOLOGICAL CONSTANT; CRITICALITY; DE SITTER SPACE; GRAVITATION; GRAVITONS; INFLATIONARY UNIVERSE; METRICS; NONLUMINOUS MATTER; PARTICLE PRODUCTION; PERTURBATION THEORY; SCATTERING

### Citation Formats

```
Dvali, Gia, Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München, Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, Gomez, Cesar, and Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, C-XVI, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid.
```*Quantum compositeness of gravity: black holes, AdS and inflation*. United States: N. p., 2014.
Web. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2014/01/023.

```
Dvali, Gia, Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München, Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, Gomez, Cesar, & Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, C-XVI, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid.
```*Quantum compositeness of gravity: black holes, AdS and inflation*. United States. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2014/01/023.

```
Dvali, Gia, Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München, Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, Gomez, Cesar, and Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, C-XVI, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid. Tue .
"Quantum compositeness of gravity: black holes, AdS and inflation". United States. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2014/01/023.
```

```
@article{osti_22454490,
```

title = {Quantum compositeness of gravity: black holes, AdS and inflation},

author = {Dvali, Gia and Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München and Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 and Gomez, Cesar and Instituto de Física Teórica UAM-CSIC, C-XVI, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid},

abstractNote = {Gravitational backgrounds, such as black holes, AdS, de Sitter and inflationary universes, should be viewed as composite of N soft constituent gravitons. It then follows that such systems are close to quantum criticality of graviton Bose-gas to Bose-liquid transition. Generic properties of the ordinary metric description, including geodesic motion or particle-creation in the background metric, emerge as the large-N limit of quantum scattering of constituent longitudinal gravitons. We show that this picture correctly accounts for physics of large and small black holes in AdS, as well as reproduces well-known inflationary predictions for cosmological parameters. However, it anticipates new effects not captured by the standard semi-classical treatment. In particular, we predict observable corrections that are sensitive to the inflationary history way beyond last 60 e-foldings. We derive an absolute upper bound on the number of e-foldings, beyond which neither de Sitter nor inflationary Universe can be approximated by a semi-classical metric. However, they could in principle persist in a new type of quantum eternity state. We discuss implications of this phenomenon for the cosmological constant problem.},

doi = {10.1088/1475-7516/2014/01/023},

journal = {Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics},

issn = {1475-7516},

number = 01,

volume = 2014,

place = {United States},

year = {2014},

month = {1}

}