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Title: Chlorophyll derivatives for pest and disease control: Are they safe?

Abstract

Chlorophyll derivatives are getting widespread acceptance among the researchers as natural photosensitizers for photodynamic control of pests and disease vectors; however, rare attention has been given to evaluation of their toxicity to non-target organisms in the environment. This perspective article highlights that chlorophyll derivatives may not be as safe as believed and can possibly pose risk to non-target organisms in the environment. We invite the attention of environmental biologists, particularly ecotoxicologists, to contribute their role in making the application of chlorophyll derivatives more environmentally friendly and publicly acceptable.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22447512
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Environmental Impact Assessment Review; Journal Volume: 50; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CHLOROPHYLL; DISEASE VECTORS; ENVIRONMENT; EVALUATION; HAZARDS; PEST CONTROL; TOXICITY

Citation Formats

Azizullah, Azizullah, E-mail: azizswabi@gmail.com, and Murad, Waheed. Chlorophyll derivatives for pest and disease control: Are they safe?. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1016/J.EIAR.2014.09.011.
Azizullah, Azizullah, E-mail: azizswabi@gmail.com, & Murad, Waheed. Chlorophyll derivatives for pest and disease control: Are they safe?. United States. doi:10.1016/J.EIAR.2014.09.011.
Azizullah, Azizullah, E-mail: azizswabi@gmail.com, and Murad, Waheed. Thu . "Chlorophyll derivatives for pest and disease control: Are they safe?". United States. doi:10.1016/J.EIAR.2014.09.011.
@article{osti_22447512,
title = {Chlorophyll derivatives for pest and disease control: Are they safe?},
author = {Azizullah, Azizullah, E-mail: azizswabi@gmail.com and Murad, Waheed},
abstractNote = {Chlorophyll derivatives are getting widespread acceptance among the researchers as natural photosensitizers for photodynamic control of pests and disease vectors; however, rare attention has been given to evaluation of their toxicity to non-target organisms in the environment. This perspective article highlights that chlorophyll derivatives may not be as safe as believed and can possibly pose risk to non-target organisms in the environment. We invite the attention of environmental biologists, particularly ecotoxicologists, to contribute their role in making the application of chlorophyll derivatives more environmentally friendly and publicly acceptable.},
doi = {10.1016/J.EIAR.2014.09.011},
journal = {Environmental Impact Assessment Review},
number = ,
volume = 50,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2015},
month = {Thu Jan 15 00:00:00 EST 2015}
}
  • Bis(chlorophyllide) ethylene glycol diesters were prepared for each of the title compounds. Pheophytins a and b isolated from alfalfa and bacteriochlorophyll a isolated from R. sphaeroides were treated with 80% aqueous trifluoroacetic acid to yield the corresponding pheophorbides. Pyropheophorbide was prepared by a literature procedure. Carbonic anhydride and benzotriazole-1-methanesulfonate activation methods were used in the esterification of the pheophorbides with ethylene glycol at ambient temperature. Each method yielded 75%+ of the pheophorbide ethylene glycol monoester. These monoesters were treated with equimolar amounts of the corresponding pheophorbide by using benzotriazol-1-methanesulfonate/4-(dimethylamino)pyridine in CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ or dicyclohexylcarbodiimide/4-(dimethylamino)pyridine in CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/ atmore » ambient temperature. Yields of bis(phenophorbide) ethylene glycol diesters averaged about 50% for the former method and 70% for the latter method. Insertion of the magnesium atoms into the a series macrocycles was accomplished with iodomagnesium 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenolate, IMgBHT, in CH/sub 2/Cl/sub 2/, while the metalation of the b and bacterial series macrocycles was carried out with a mixture of IMgBHT and lithium 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidide in thiophen, all at ambient temperature. Both mono- and dimetalated derivatives were isolated and characterized in each case.« less
  • Stimulated emission and lasing have been demonstrated for chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and bacteriochlorophyll a as well as for the Mg-free chlorophyll derivatives pheophytin a and methyl pheophorbide a. Population inversion was obtained by optically pumping with an N/sub 2/ laser. For the three chlorophylls, lasing was observed for only the (0,0) vibronic region of the S/sub 1/ ..-->.. S/sub 0/ fluorescence band. In contrast, lasing was observed for both the (0,0) and (0,1) vibronic regions of the S/sub 1/ ..-->.. S/sub 0/ fluorescence band of pheophytin a and methyl pheophorbide a. Differences between the lasing behavior of the chlorophyllsmore » and the Mg-free derivatives probably reflect differences in aggregation behavior. Laser pulses of duration shorter than the fluorescence lifetimes were generated. This result suggests that stimulated emission must be considered in the interpretation of fluorescence lifetime data for in vitro and in vivo chlorophyll-containing systems.« less