skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Effluents from MBT plants: Plasma techniques for the treatment of VOCs

Abstract

Highlights: • Dielectric Barrier Discharge was applied to remove methyl ethyl ketone from air. • Methyl ethyl ketone was chosen since it represents emissions from MBT plants. • The removal efficiency was linearly dependent on time, power and energy density. • Besides CO{sub 2}, methyl nitrate and 2,3-butanedione were the main byproducts formed. • The removal efficiency can be increased by increasing the convective flow. - Abstract: Mechanical–biological treatments (MBTs) of urban waste are growing in popularity in many European countries. Recent studies pointed out that their contribution in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other air pollutants is not negligible. Compared to classical removal technologies, non-thermal plasmas (NTP) showed better performances and low energy consumption when applied to treat lowly concentrated streams. Therefore, to study the feasibility of the application of NTP to MBTs, a Dielectric Barrier Discharge reactor was applied to treat a mixture of air and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), to simulate emissions from MBTs. The removal efficiency of MEK was linearly dependent upon time, power and specific input energy. Only 2–4% of MEK was converted to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the remaining carbon being involved in the formation of byproducts (methyl nitrate and 2,3-butanedione, especially).more » For future development of pilot-scale reactors, acting on residence time, power, convective flow and catalysts will help finding a compromise between energy consumption, desired abatement and selectivity to CO{sub 2}.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [1];  [4]
  1. Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy)
  2. Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 5, I-38123 Trento (Italy)
  3. Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy)
  4. (Italy)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22436831
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Waste Management; Journal Volume: 34; Journal Issue: 11; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; AIR; AIR POLLUTION; CARBON; CARBON DIOXIDE; CATALYSTS; DIELECTRIC MATERIALS; ENERGY CONSUMPTION; ENERGY DENSITY; KETONES; MUNICIPAL WASTES; NITRIC ACID ESTERS; PLASMA; TIME DEPENDENCE; VOLATILE MATTER

Citation Formats

Ragazzi, Marco, E-mail: marco.ragazzi@unitn.it, Tosi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.tosi@unitn.it, Rada, Elena Cristina, E-mail: elena.rada@unitn.it, Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it, Schiavon, Marco, E-mail: marco.schiavon@unitn.it, and Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese. Effluents from MBT plants: Plasma techniques for the treatment of VOCs. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1016/J.WASMAN.2014.07.026.
Ragazzi, Marco, E-mail: marco.ragazzi@unitn.it, Tosi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.tosi@unitn.it, Rada, Elena Cristina, E-mail: elena.rada@unitn.it, Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it, Schiavon, Marco, E-mail: marco.schiavon@unitn.it, & Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese. Effluents from MBT plants: Plasma techniques for the treatment of VOCs. United States. doi:10.1016/J.WASMAN.2014.07.026.
Ragazzi, Marco, E-mail: marco.ragazzi@unitn.it, Tosi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.tosi@unitn.it, Rada, Elena Cristina, E-mail: elena.rada@unitn.it, Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it, Schiavon, Marco, E-mail: marco.schiavon@unitn.it, and Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese. Sat . "Effluents from MBT plants: Plasma techniques for the treatment of VOCs". United States. doi:10.1016/J.WASMAN.2014.07.026.
@article{osti_22436831,
title = {Effluents from MBT plants: Plasma techniques for the treatment of VOCs},
author = {Ragazzi, Marco, E-mail: marco.ragazzi@unitn.it and Tosi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.tosi@unitn.it and Rada, Elena Cristina, E-mail: elena.rada@unitn.it and Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it and Schiavon, Marco, E-mail: marco.schiavon@unitn.it and Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese},
abstractNote = {Highlights: • Dielectric Barrier Discharge was applied to remove methyl ethyl ketone from air. • Methyl ethyl ketone was chosen since it represents emissions from MBT plants. • The removal efficiency was linearly dependent on time, power and energy density. • Besides CO{sub 2}, methyl nitrate and 2,3-butanedione were the main byproducts formed. • The removal efficiency can be increased by increasing the convective flow. - Abstract: Mechanical–biological treatments (MBTs) of urban waste are growing in popularity in many European countries. Recent studies pointed out that their contribution in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other air pollutants is not negligible. Compared to classical removal technologies, non-thermal plasmas (NTP) showed better performances and low energy consumption when applied to treat lowly concentrated streams. Therefore, to study the feasibility of the application of NTP to MBTs, a Dielectric Barrier Discharge reactor was applied to treat a mixture of air and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), to simulate emissions from MBTs. The removal efficiency of MEK was linearly dependent upon time, power and specific input energy. Only 2–4% of MEK was converted to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the remaining carbon being involved in the formation of byproducts (methyl nitrate and 2,3-butanedione, especially). For future development of pilot-scale reactors, acting on residence time, power, convective flow and catalysts will help finding a compromise between energy consumption, desired abatement and selectivity to CO{sub 2}.},
doi = {10.1016/J.WASMAN.2014.07.026},
journal = {Waste Management},
number = 11,
volume = 34,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Nov 15 00:00:00 EST 2014},
month = {Sat Nov 15 00:00:00 EST 2014}
}
  • Thyroid system-disrupting activity in effluents from municipal domestic sewage treatment plants was detected using three in vitro assays and one in vivo assay. Contaminants in the effluents were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and eluted stepwise with different organic solvents. The majority of the thyroid system-disrupting activity was detected in the dichloromethane/methanol (1/1) fraction after SPE in all three in vitro assays: competitive assays of 3,3',5-[{sup 125}I]triiodo-L-thyronine ([{sup 125}I]T{sub 3}) binding to the plasma protein transthyretin (TTR assay) and thyroid hormone receptor (TR assay) and T{sub 3}-dependent luciferase assay (Luc assay). Subsequent reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) of the dichloromethane/methanolmore » (1/1) fraction separated contaminants potent in the TR and Luc assays from those potent in the TTR assay. The contaminants potent in the TR and Luc assays were also potent in an in vivo short-term gene expression assay in Xenopus laevis (Tadpole assay). The present study demonstrated that the effluents from domestic sewage treatment plants contain contaminants with T{sub 3}-like activity of {approx} 10{sup -10} M T{sub 3}-equivalent concentration (T{sub 3}EQ) and that the TR and Luc assays are powerful in vitro bioassays for detecting thyroid system-disrupting activity in effluents. The availability and applicability of these bioassays for screening contaminants with thyroid system-disrupting activity in the water environment are discussed.« less
  • Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become an important technology in waste management during the last decade. The paper compiles investigations of mechanical biological processes in Austrian MBT plants. Samples from all plants representing different stages of degradation were included in this study. The range of the relevant parameters characterizing the materials and their behavior, e.g. total organic carbon, total nitrogen, respiration activity and gas generation sum, was determined. The evolution of total carbon and nitrogen containing compounds was compared and related to process operation. The respiration activity decreases in most of the plants by aboutmore » 90% of the initial values whereas the ammonium release is still ongoing at the end of the biological treatment. If the biogenic waste fraction is not separated, it favors humification in MBT materials that is not observed to such extent in MSW. The amount of organic carbon is about 15% dry matter at the end of the biological treatment.« less
  • Effluents from middle-sized industries, connected to municipal treatment plants in two cities in Sweden were sampled daily during 1 week and were characterized chemically and biologically. The results were evaluated mainly with multivariate statistics to find relations between chemistry and toxicity. The principal component analysis (PCA) overview of the chemical variables displayed three main clusters: nitrogen fractions, metals, and organic parameters. An overview of the biological responses showed that inhibition of nitrification was not correlated to the other biological tests. Bivariate statistics found significant correlations existing between different endpoints of Microtox. In the partial least squares in latent structures (PLS)more » models created for the biological toxicity tests (Microtox, inhibition of nitrification, and algal growth test with Selenastrum capricornutum), two significant groups causing toxicity were detected, namely inorganic metals and organic pollutants detected by adsorbable organic halogens, chemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon. When characterizing these industrial effluents, the chemical determinations and the various biological toxicity tests complement each other and none can be excluded.« less
  • Aluminum, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, silver, strontium, vanadium and zinc concentrations in the sewage, effluents and sludges of ten southern Ontario wastewater treatment plants are reported. The efficiency for metal removal by a conventional activated sludge plant was determined. The effect of metal concentrations in receiving waters from residual metals in sewage effluents is discussed. The environmental hazards of disposing of sewage sludges with high metal content on agricultural land is considered.