skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM

Abstract

Highlights: ► In this study, we recovered indium from a waste LCD panel. ► The ITO glass was milled to obtain micron size particles in a HEBM machine. ► Effect of particle size of ITO glass on the amount of dissolved In was investigated. ► In a very short time, a considerable amount of In was recovered. ► Amount of HCl in acid solution was decreased to 40 vol.%. - Abstract: In this study, a method which is environmentally sound, time and energy efficient has been used for recovery of indium from used liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. In this method, indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was crushed to micron size particles in seconds via high energy ball milling (HEBM). The parameters affecting the amount of dissolved indium such as milling time, particle size, effect time of acid solution, amount of HCl in the acid solution were tried to be optimized. The results show that by crushing ITO glass to micron size particles by HEBM, it is possible to extract higher amount of indium at room temperature than that by conventional methods using only conventional shredding machines. In this study, 86% of indium which exists in raw materials was recoveredmore » about in a very short time.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [1]
  1. Division of Advanced Materials Engineering and Institute for Rare Metals, Kongju National University, Cheonan 331-717 (Korea, Republic of)
  2. Department of Physics, Faculty of Art and Science, Kastamonu University, Kastamonu (Turkey)
  3. Graduate School of Green Energy Technology and Department of Nanomaterials Engineering, Chungnam National University, 79 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Dajeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)
  4. Advanced Materials and Processing Center, Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Yongin 449-863 (Korea, Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22436800
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Waste Management; Journal Volume: 33; Journal Issue: 3; Conference: 1. international symposium on urban mining (SUM), Bergamo (Italy), 21-23 May 2012; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2012 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; CRUSHING; GLASS; HYDROCHLORIC ACID; INDIUM; LIQUID CRYSTALS; MATERIALS RECOVERY; MILLING; PARTICLE SIZE; SOLUTIONS; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0273-0400 K; TIN OXIDES; WASTES

Citation Formats

Lee, Cheol-Hee, Jeong, Mi-Kyung, Fatih Kilicaslan, M., Lee, Jong-Hyeon, Hong, Hyun-Seon, and Hong, Soon-Jik, E-mail: hongsj@kongju.ac.kr. Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM. United States: N. p., 2013. Web. doi:10.1016/J.WASMAN.2012.10.002.
Lee, Cheol-Hee, Jeong, Mi-Kyung, Fatih Kilicaslan, M., Lee, Jong-Hyeon, Hong, Hyun-Seon, & Hong, Soon-Jik, E-mail: hongsj@kongju.ac.kr. Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM. United States. doi:10.1016/J.WASMAN.2012.10.002.
Lee, Cheol-Hee, Jeong, Mi-Kyung, Fatih Kilicaslan, M., Lee, Jong-Hyeon, Hong, Hyun-Seon, and Hong, Soon-Jik, E-mail: hongsj@kongju.ac.kr. Fri . "Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM". United States. doi:10.1016/J.WASMAN.2012.10.002.
@article{osti_22436800,
title = {Recovery of indium from used LCD panel by a time efficient and environmentally sound method assisted HEBM},
author = {Lee, Cheol-Hee and Jeong, Mi-Kyung and Fatih Kilicaslan, M. and Lee, Jong-Hyeon and Hong, Hyun-Seon and Hong, Soon-Jik, E-mail: hongsj@kongju.ac.kr},
abstractNote = {Highlights: ► In this study, we recovered indium from a waste LCD panel. ► The ITO glass was milled to obtain micron size particles in a HEBM machine. ► Effect of particle size of ITO glass on the amount of dissolved In was investigated. ► In a very short time, a considerable amount of In was recovered. ► Amount of HCl in acid solution was decreased to 40 vol.%. - Abstract: In this study, a method which is environmentally sound, time and energy efficient has been used for recovery of indium from used liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. In this method, indium tin oxide (ITO) glass was crushed to micron size particles in seconds via high energy ball milling (HEBM). The parameters affecting the amount of dissolved indium such as milling time, particle size, effect time of acid solution, amount of HCl in the acid solution were tried to be optimized. The results show that by crushing ITO glass to micron size particles by HEBM, it is possible to extract higher amount of indium at room temperature than that by conventional methods using only conventional shredding machines. In this study, 86% of indium which exists in raw materials was recovered about in a very short time.},
doi = {10.1016/J.WASMAN.2012.10.002},
journal = {Waste Management},
number = 3,
volume = 33,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2013},
month = {Fri Mar 15 00:00:00 EDT 2013}
}
  • Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • End-of-life LCD panels represent a source of indium. • Several experimental conditions for indium leaching have been assessed. • Indium is completely extracted with 2 M sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 10 min. • Cross-current leaching improves indium extraction and operating costs are lowered. • Benefits to the environment come from reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions and reagents use. - Abstract: Indium is a critical element mainly produced as a by-product of zinc mining, and it is largely used in the production process of liquid crystal display (LCD) panels. End-of-life LCDs representmore » a possible source of indium in the field of urban mining. In the present paper, we apply, for the first time, cross-current leaching to mobilize indium from end-of-life LCD panels. We carried out a series of treatments to leach indium. The best leaching conditions for indium were 2 M sulfuric acid at 80 °C for 10 min, which allowed us to completely mobilize indium. Taking into account the low content of indium in end-of-life LCDs, of about 100 ppm, a single step of leaching is not cost-effective. We tested 6 steps of cross-current leaching: in the first step indium leaching was complete, whereas in the second step it was in the range of 85–90%, and with 6 steps it was about 50–55%. Indium concentration in the leachate was about 35 mg/L after the first step of leaching, almost 2-fold at the second step and about 3-fold at the fifth step. Then, we hypothesized to scale up the process of cross-current leaching up to 10 steps, followed by cementation with zinc to recover indium. In this simulation, the process of indium recovery was advantageous from an economic and environmental point of view. Indeed, cross-current leaching allowed to concentrate indium, save reagents, and reduce the emission of CO{sub 2} (with 10 steps we assessed that the emission of about 90 kg CO{sub 2}-Eq. could be avoided) thanks to the recovery of indium. This new strategy represents a useful approach for secondary production of indium from waste LCD panels.« less
  • Halfway through its five-year commercial demonstration period, the experimental Cool Water Coal Gasification Plant in the Mohave Desert is proving to have an effective, economical, and environmentally sound operation. The success of this project will affect utility applications in the US and throughout the world. The author reviews the project objectives which have already been met and describes the plant's operation. Current capacity factor is about 70%. The technologies are available, and any design improvements should be mostly in the area of operational knowledge and minor modifications. 1 figure.
  • Within the context of European Union (EU) energy policy and sustainibility in waste management, recent EU regulations demand energy efficient and environmentally sound disposal methods of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). Currently, landfill with its many drawbacks is the preferred option in the EU and many other industrialised countries. Within the waste management hierarchy thermal disposal especially incineration is a viable and proven alternative. But, the dominating method, mass-burn grate incineration has drawbacks as well particularly hazardous emissions and harmful process residues. In recent years, pyrolysis and gasification technologies have emerged to address these issues and improve the energy output. Tomore » keep the many players in the field comprehensively informed and up-to-date, novel and innovative technology approaches emphasising European developments are reviewed.« less
  • Subcritical crack growth measurements were conducted on ceramic matrix composites of {beta}-SiC matrix reinforced with NICALON fibers (SiC/SiC{sub f}); fiber-matrix interphases were of carbon and boron nitride. Velocities of effective elastic cracks were determined as a function of effective applied stress intensity in pure Ar and in Ar plus 2,000, 5,000, and 20,000 ppm O{sub 2} atmospheres at 1,100 C. Over a wide range of applied stress intensities, the V {minus} K{sub eff} diagrams revealed a stage 2 pattern in which the crack velocity depends only weakly on the applied stress intensity, followed by a stage 3, or power-law, patternmore » at higher stress intensity. Oxygen increased the crack velocity in stage 2 and shifted the stage 2 to 3 transition to the left. A two-dimensional (2-D) micromechanics approach, developed to model the time dependence of observed crack-bridging events, rationalized the measured effective crack velocities, their time dependence, the stage 2 to 3 transition, and the effect of oxygen in terms of the load relaxation of crack-bridging fibers.« less
  • This article discusses the transfer of environmentally sound technology from Japan to developing countries, particularly China. The focus is on the main Japanese organizations involved in environmentally sound technology transfer, including government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and Japanese industry. The article also describes the main activities involved in Japan`s technology transfer efforts, such as grants, loan, information exchange, and demonstration projects, with specific examples of Japan`s technology transfer work in China. Finally, the paper analyzes the successes and challenges of various technology transfer mechanism and provides insight on the direction of Japan`s future environmentally sound technology transfer projects and programs inmore » developing countries.« less