skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Long-Term Results of a Randomized Trial in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: No Benefit From Adding a Brachytherapy Boost

Abstract

Purpose/Objective(s): Mature data on tumor control and survival are presented from a randomized trial of the addition of a brachytherapy boost to long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between March 2005 and November 2008, 248 patients with T3-4N0-2M0 rectal cancer were prospectively randomized to either long-course preoperative CRT (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions, per oral tegafur-uracil and L-leucovorin) alone or the same CRT schedule plus a brachytherapy boost (10 Gy in 2 fractions). The primary trial endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR) at the time of surgery; secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and freedom from locoregional failure. Results: Results for the primary endpoint have previously been reported. This analysis presents survival data for the 224 patients in the Danish part of the trial. In all, 221 patients (111 control arm, 110 brachytherapy boost arm) had data available for analysis, with a median follow-up time of 5.4 years. Despite a significant increase in tumor response at the time of surgery, no differences in 5-year OS (70.6% vs 63.6%, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.24, P=.34) and PFS (63.9% vs 52.0%, HR=1.22, P=.32) were observed. Freedom from locoregional failure at 5 years were 93.9% and 85.7% (HR=2.60, P=.06)more » in the standard and in the brachytherapy arms, respectively. There was no difference in the prevalence of stoma. Explorative analysis based on stratification for tumor regression grade and resection margin status indicated the presence of response migration. Conclusions: Despite increased pathologic tumor regression at the time of surgery, we observed no benefit on late outcome. Improved tumor regression does not necessarily lead to a relevant clinical benefit when the neoadjuvant treatment is followed by high-quality surgery.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]; ; ; ;  [4];  [5];  [6];  [2]
  1. Department of Oncology, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark)
  2. (Denmark)
  3. Department of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)
  4. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark)
  5. Division of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center, and Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)
  6. Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22420415
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 90; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; BRACHYTHERAPY; CITROVORUM FACTOR; NEOPLASMS; PATIENTS; RECTUM; SURGERY; URACILS

Citation Formats

Appelt, Ane L., E-mail: ane.lindegaard.appelt@rsyd.dk, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Vogelius, Ivan R., Pløen, John, Rafaelsen, Søren R., Lindebjerg, Jan, Havelund, Birgitte M., Bentzen, Søren M., Jakobsen, Anders, and Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle. Long-Term Results of a Randomized Trial in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: No Benefit From Adding a Brachytherapy Boost. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2014.05.023.
Appelt, Ane L., E-mail: ane.lindegaard.appelt@rsyd.dk, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Vogelius, Ivan R., Pløen, John, Rafaelsen, Søren R., Lindebjerg, Jan, Havelund, Birgitte M., Bentzen, Søren M., Jakobsen, Anders, & Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle. Long-Term Results of a Randomized Trial in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: No Benefit From Adding a Brachytherapy Boost. United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2014.05.023.
Appelt, Ane L., E-mail: ane.lindegaard.appelt@rsyd.dk, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Vogelius, Ivan R., Pløen, John, Rafaelsen, Søren R., Lindebjerg, Jan, Havelund, Birgitte M., Bentzen, Søren M., Jakobsen, Anders, and Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle. Mon . "Long-Term Results of a Randomized Trial in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: No Benefit From Adding a Brachytherapy Boost". United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2014.05.023.
@article{osti_22420415,
title = {Long-Term Results of a Randomized Trial in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: No Benefit From Adding a Brachytherapy Boost},
author = {Appelt, Ane L., E-mail: ane.lindegaard.appelt@rsyd.dk and Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southern Denmark, Odense and Vogelius, Ivan R. and Pløen, John and Rafaelsen, Søren R. and Lindebjerg, Jan and Havelund, Birgitte M. and Bentzen, Søren M. and Jakobsen, Anders and Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle},
abstractNote = {Purpose/Objective(s): Mature data on tumor control and survival are presented from a randomized trial of the addition of a brachytherapy boost to long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Between March 2005 and November 2008, 248 patients with T3-4N0-2M0 rectal cancer were prospectively randomized to either long-course preoperative CRT (50.4 Gy in 28 fractions, per oral tegafur-uracil and L-leucovorin) alone or the same CRT schedule plus a brachytherapy boost (10 Gy in 2 fractions). The primary trial endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR) at the time of surgery; secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and freedom from locoregional failure. Results: Results for the primary endpoint have previously been reported. This analysis presents survival data for the 224 patients in the Danish part of the trial. In all, 221 patients (111 control arm, 110 brachytherapy boost arm) had data available for analysis, with a median follow-up time of 5.4 years. Despite a significant increase in tumor response at the time of surgery, no differences in 5-year OS (70.6% vs 63.6%, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.24, P=.34) and PFS (63.9% vs 52.0%, HR=1.22, P=.32) were observed. Freedom from locoregional failure at 5 years were 93.9% and 85.7% (HR=2.60, P=.06) in the standard and in the brachytherapy arms, respectively. There was no difference in the prevalence of stoma. Explorative analysis based on stratification for tumor regression grade and resection margin status indicated the presence of response migration. Conclusions: Despite increased pathologic tumor regression at the time of surgery, we observed no benefit on late outcome. Improved tumor regression does not necessarily lead to a relevant clinical benefit when the neoadjuvant treatment is followed by high-quality surgery.},
doi = {10.1016/J.IJROBP.2014.05.023},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 1,
volume = 90,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Mon Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • Objective: Intensified preoperative treatments have been increasingly investigated in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), but limited data are available for the impact of these regimens on quality of life (QoL) and bowel function (BF). We assessed these outcome measures in EXPERT-C, a randomized phase 2 trial of neoadjuvant capecitabine combined with oxaliplatin (CAPOX), followed by chemoradiation therapy (CRT), total mesorectal excision, and adjuvant CAPOX with or without cetuximab in magnetic resonance imaging-defined, high-risk LARC. Methods and Materials: QoL was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR29 questionnaires. Bowel incontinence was assessed using the modifiedmore » Fecal Incontinence Severity Index questionnaire. Results: Compared to baseline, QoL scores during preoperative treatment were better for symptoms associated with the primary tumor in the rectum (blood and mucus in stool, constipation, diarrhea, stool frequency, buttock pain) but worse for global health status, role functioning, and symptoms related to the specific safety profile of each treatment modality. During follow-up, improved emotional functioning and lessened anxiety and insomnia were observed, but deterioration of body image, increased urinary incontinence, less sexual interest (men), and increased impotence and dyspareunia were observed. Cetuximab was associated with a deterioration of global health status during neoadjuvant chemotherapy but did not have any long-term detrimental effect. An improvement in bowel continence was observed after preoperative treatment and 3 years after sphincter-sparing surgery. Conclusions: Intensifying neoadjuvant treatment by administering induction systemic chemotherapy before chemoradiation therapy improves tumor-related symptoms and does not appear to have a significantly detrimental effect on QoL and BF, in both the short and the long term.« less
  • Background: We analyzed the long-term results of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer using a multimodal approach consisting of total mesorectal excision (TME), intraoperative electron-beam radiation therapy (IOERT), and pre- or postoperative chemoradiation (CRT). Patients and Methods: Between 1991 and 2003, 210 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (65 International Union Against Cancer [UICC] Stage II, 116 UICC Stage III, and 29 UICC Stage IV cancers) were treated with TME, IOERT, and preoperative or postoperative CHT. A total of 122 patients were treated postoperatively; 88 patients preoperatively. Preoperative or postoperative fluoropyrimidine-based CRT was applied in 93% of these patients. Results:more » Median age was 61 years (range, 26-81). Median follow-up was 61 months. The 5-year actuarial overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), local control rate (LC), and distant relapse free survival (DRS) of all patients was 69%, 66%, 93%, and 67%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that UICC stage and resection status were the most important independent prognostic factors for OS, DFS, and DRS. The resection status was the only significant factor for local control. T-stage, tumor localization, type of resection, and type of chemotherapy had no significant impact on OS, DFS, DRS, and LC. Acute and late complications {>=}Grade 3 were seen in 17% and 13% of patients, respectively. Conclusion: Multimodality treatment with TME and IOERT boost in combination with moderate dose pre- or postoperative CRT is feasible and results in excellent long-term local control rates in patients with intermediate to high-risk locally advanced rectal cancer.« less
  • Purpose: To report the long-term results of the ARO 95-06 randomized trial comparing hyperfractionated accelerated chemoradiation with mitomycin C/5-fluorouracil (C-HART) with hyperfractionated accelerated radiation therapy (HART) alone in locally advanced head and neck cancer. Patients and Methods: The primary endpoint was locoregional control (LRC). Three hundred eighty-four patients with stage III (6%) and IV (94%) oropharyngeal (59.4%), hypopharyngeal (32.3%), and oral cavity (8.3%) cancer were randomly assigned to 30 Gy/2 Gy daily followed by twice-daily 1.4 Gy to a total of 70.6 Gy concurrently with mitomycin C/5-FU (C-HART) or 16 Gy/2 Gy daily followed by twice-daily 1.4 Gy to a total dose of 77.6 Gy alone (HART). Statisticalmore » analyses were done with the log-rank test and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Results: The median follow-up time was 8.7 years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.8-9.7 years). At 10 years, the LRC rates were 38.0% (C-HART) versus 26.0% (HART, P=.002). The cancer-specific survival and overall survival rates were 39% and 10% (C-HART) versus 30.0% and 9% (HART, P=.042 and P=.049), respectively. According to multivariate Cox regression analysis, the combined treatment was associated with improved LRC (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.6 [95% CI: 0.5-0.8; P=.002]). The association between combined treatment arm and increased LRC appeared to be limited to oropharyngeal cancer (P=.003) as compared with hypopharyngeal or oral cavity cancer (P=.264). Conclusions: C-HART remains superior to HART in terms of LRC. However, this effect may be limited to oropharyngeal cancer patients.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate long-term changes in the rectal mucosa after curative external beam radiation therapy in the treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: In the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group 7 trial, 880 men with locally advanced prostate cancer were randomized to hormonal therapy alone versus hormonal therapy plus radiation therapy to 70 Gy. A subcohort from this trial being randomized at our center (n=178) was invited to a study on late anorectal side effects during 2003-2005, approximately 5 years after treatment, including measuring health-reported quality of life and physician-assessed toxicity score by the Late Effects Normal Tissue Task Force/Subjective, Objective, Management, Analyticmore » (LENT/SOMA) and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group score. Sixty-seven patients had a rectal mucosa biopsy. Sixty-four biopsies were included in the final analysis, of which 33 patients were randomized to hormonal treatment and 31 to hormonal treatment plus radiation therapy. The presence of fibrosis, number of capillaries, and lymphocyte infiltration was then evaluated by light microscopy. Results: The group receiving radiation therapy had significantly higher LENT/SOMA and function/bother scale scores than the group that only received hormonal treatment, but there was no significant difference in the presence of fibrosis, ectasia, number of capillaries in the lamina propria, or lymphocyte infiltration between the groups. Conclusion: Radiation therapy to 70 Gy to the prostate does not induce long-term microscopic mucosal changes in the rectum 5 years after treatment. This is in contrast to the general assumption that structural changes, including fibrosis, seen after radiation therapy include the mucosa. We speculate that the main late effects of radiation therapy on the structure of the rectum are located in the deeper layers of the rectal wall than the mucosa.« less
  • Purpose: To perform a prospective phase II study to investigate the efficacy and safety of preoperative pelvic radiation therapy and concomitant small-field boost irradiation with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin for 5 weeks in locally advanced rectal cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Sixty-nine patients with locally advanced, nonmetastatic, mid-to-lower rectal cancer were prospectively enrolled. They had received preoperative chemoradiation therapy and total mesorectal excision. Pelvic radiation therapy of 43.2 Gy in 24 fractions plus concomitant boost radiation therapy of 7.2 Gy in 12 fractions was delivered to the pelvis and tumor bed for 5 weeks. Two cycles of 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin weremore » administered for 3 days in the first and fifth week of radiation therapy. The pathologic response, survival outcome, and treatment toxicity were evaluated for the study endpoints. Results: Of 69 patients, 8 (11.6%) had a pathologically complete response. Downstaging rates were 40.5% for T classification and 68.1% for N classification. At the median follow-up of 69 months, 36 patients have been followed up for more than 5 years. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival rates were 66.0% and 75.3%, respectively. Higher pathologic T (P = .045) and N (P = .032) classification were significant adverse prognostic factors for DFS, and high-grade histology was an adverse prognostic factor for both DFS (P = .025) and overall survival (P = .031) on the multivariate analysis. Fifteen patients (21.7%) experienced grade 3 or 4 acute toxicity, and 7 patients (10.1%) had long-term toxicity. Conclusion: Preoperative pelvic radiation therapy with concomitant boost irradiation with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin for 5 weeks showed acceptable acute and long-term toxicities. However, the benefit of concomitant small-field boost irradiation for 5 weeks in rectal cancer patients was not demonstrated beyond conventional irradiation for 6 weeks in terms of tumor response and survival.« less