skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: The Role of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Treatment Response Evaluation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Treated With Radiation Therapy

Abstract

Purpose: We investigated the role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW MRI) as a response evaluation indicator for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Inclusion criteria of this retrospective study were DW MRI acquisition within 1 month before and 3 to 5 months after RT. In total, 48 patients were enrolled. Two radiation oncologists measured the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Possible predictive factors, including alteration of the ADC value before and 3 to 5 month after RT, in relation to local progression-free survival (LPFS) were analyzed and compared. Results: Three months after RT, 6 patients (12.5%) showed a complete response, and 27 patients (56.3%) showed a partial response when evaluated using the modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (mRECIST). The average ADC ± SD values were 1.21 ± 0.27 ( × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) before and 1.41 ± 0.36 ( × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) after RT (P<.001). The most significant prognostic factor related to LPFS was mRECIST (P<.001). The increment of ADC value (≥20%) was also a significant factor (P=.02), but RECIST (version 1.1; P=.11) was not. When RECIST was combined with the increment of ADC value (≥20%), the LPFS rates were significantly different between the groups (P=.004), and the area under the curvemore » value (0.745) was comparable with that of mRECIST (0.765). Conclusions: ADC value change before and after RT in HCC was closely related to LPFS. ADC value and RECIST may substitute for mRECIST in patients who cannot receive contrast agents.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]; ; ;  [1];  [2]; ; ;  [3]
  1. Department of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
  2. Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
  3. Department of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22420367
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics; Journal Volume: 89; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; CONTRAST MEDIA; DIFFUSION; HEPATOMAS; MEDICAL PERSONNEL; NMR IMAGING; PATIENTS; RADIOTHERAPY

Citation Formats

Yu, Jeong Il, Park, Hee Chul, E-mail: hee.ro.park@skku.edu, Lim, Do Hoon, Choi, Yunseon, Jung, Sang Hoon, Paik, Seung Woon, Kim, Seong Hyun, Jeong, Woo Kyoung, and Kim, Young Kon. The Role of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Treatment Response Evaluation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Treated With Radiation Therapy. United States: N. p., 2014. Web. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2014.03.020.
Yu, Jeong Il, Park, Hee Chul, E-mail: hee.ro.park@skku.edu, Lim, Do Hoon, Choi, Yunseon, Jung, Sang Hoon, Paik, Seung Woon, Kim, Seong Hyun, Jeong, Woo Kyoung, & Kim, Young Kon. The Role of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Treatment Response Evaluation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Treated With Radiation Therapy. United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2014.03.020.
Yu, Jeong Il, Park, Hee Chul, E-mail: hee.ro.park@skku.edu, Lim, Do Hoon, Choi, Yunseon, Jung, Sang Hoon, Paik, Seung Woon, Kim, Seong Hyun, Jeong, Woo Kyoung, and Kim, Young Kon. Tue . "The Role of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Treatment Response Evaluation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Treated With Radiation Therapy". United States. doi:10.1016/J.IJROBP.2014.03.020.
@article{osti_22420367,
title = {The Role of Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Treatment Response Evaluation of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Treated With Radiation Therapy},
author = {Yu, Jeong Il and Park, Hee Chul, E-mail: hee.ro.park@skku.edu and Lim, Do Hoon and Choi, Yunseon and Jung, Sang Hoon and Paik, Seung Woon and Kim, Seong Hyun and Jeong, Woo Kyoung and Kim, Young Kon},
abstractNote = {Purpose: We investigated the role of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW MRI) as a response evaluation indicator for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Inclusion criteria of this retrospective study were DW MRI acquisition within 1 month before and 3 to 5 months after RT. In total, 48 patients were enrolled. Two radiation oncologists measured the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Possible predictive factors, including alteration of the ADC value before and 3 to 5 month after RT, in relation to local progression-free survival (LPFS) were analyzed and compared. Results: Three months after RT, 6 patients (12.5%) showed a complete response, and 27 patients (56.3%) showed a partial response when evaluated using the modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (mRECIST). The average ADC ± SD values were 1.21 ± 0.27 ( × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) before and 1.41 ± 0.36 ( × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) after RT (P<.001). The most significant prognostic factor related to LPFS was mRECIST (P<.001). The increment of ADC value (≥20%) was also a significant factor (P=.02), but RECIST (version 1.1; P=.11) was not. When RECIST was combined with the increment of ADC value (≥20%), the LPFS rates were significantly different between the groups (P=.004), and the area under the curve value (0.745) was comparable with that of mRECIST (0.765). Conclusions: ADC value change before and after RT in HCC was closely related to LPFS. ADC value and RECIST may substitute for mRECIST in patients who cannot receive contrast agents.},
doi = {10.1016/J.IJROBP.2014.03.020},
journal = {International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology and Physics},
number = 4,
volume = 89,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jul 15 00:00:00 EDT 2014},
month = {Tue Jul 15 00:00:00 EDT 2014}
}
  • Purpose: To evaluate diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for assessment of treatment response in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) three weeks after the end of chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Twenty-nine patients with HNSCC underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to and 3 weeks after CRT, including T{sub 2}-weighted and pre- and postcontrast T{sub 1}-weighted sequences and an echo-planar DWI sequence with six b values (0 to 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}), from which the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated. ADC changes 3 weeks posttreatment compared to baseline ( Increment ADC) between responding and nonresponding primary lesions and adenopathies were correlatedmore » with 2 years locoregional control and compared with a Mann-Whitney test. In a blinded manner, the Increment ADC was compared to conventional MRI 3 weeks post-CRT and the routinely implemented CT, on average 3 months post-CRT, which used size-related and morphological criteria. Positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) were compared between the Increment ADC and anatomical imaging. Results: The Increment ADC of lesions with later tumor recurrence was significantly lower than lesions with complete remission for both primary lesions (-2.3% {+-} 0.3% vs. 80% {+-} 41%; p < 0.0001) and adenopathies (19.9% {+-} 32% vs. 63% {+-} 36%; p = 0.003). The Increment ADC showed a PPV of 89% and an NPV of 100% for primary lesions and a PPV of 70% and an NPV of 96% for adenopathies per neck side. DWI improved PPV and NPV compared to anatomical imaging. Conclusion: DWI with the Increment ADC 3 weeks after concluding CRT for HNSCC allows for early assessment of treatment response.« less
  • Purpose: Focal liver reaction (FLR) appears on radiographic images after stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy (SABR) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic liver disease. We investigated the threshold dose (TD) of FLR and possible factors affecting the TD on gadoxetate acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: In 50 patients who were treated with SABR for small HCC and followed up by MRI for >6 months, FLR, seen as a hypointense area, was evaluated on the hepatobiliary phase of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. The follow-up MRI with the largest extent of FLR was fused to the planning computedmore » tomography (CT) image, and patients with good image fusion concordance were eligible. After delineating the border of the FLR manually, a dose–volume histogram was used to identify the TD for the FLR. Clinical and volumetric factors were analyzed for correlation with the TD. Results: A total of 45 patients were eligible for analysis with a median image fusion concordance of 84.9% (range, 71.6-95.4%). The median duration between SABR and subsequent hepatobiliary phase MRI with the largest extent of FLR was 3 months (range, 1-6 months). The median TD for FLR was 28.0 Gy (range, 22.3-36.4 Gy). On univariate analysis, pre-treatment Child-Pugh (CP) score and platelet count were significantly correlated with the TD. On multiple linear regression analysis, CP score was the only parameter that predicted TD. Median TDs were 30.5 Gy (range, 26.2.3-36.4 Gy) and 25.2 Gy (range, 22.3-27.5 Gy) for patients with CP-A and CP-B disease, respectively. Conclusion: The TD was significantly correlated with baseline liver function. We propose 30 Gy for CP-A disease and 25 Gy for CP-B disease in 5 fractions as TDs for FLR after SABR for patients with HCC and chronic liver disease. Use of these TDs will help to predict potential loss of liver tissue after SABR.« less
  • Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion weighted-imaging (MRI/DWI)-guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) — positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for the definitive treatment of cervical cancer is a novel treatment technique. The purpose of this study was to report our analysis of dose-volume parameters predicting gross tumor volume (GTV) control. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the records of 134 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stages IB1-IVB cervical cancer treated with combined MRI-guided HDR and IMRT from July 2009 to July 2011. IMRT was targeted to the metabolic tumor volume and lymph nodesmore » by use of FDG-PET/CT simulation. The GTV for each HDR fraction was delineated by use of T2-weighted or apparent diffusion coefficient maps from diffusion-weighted sequences. The D100, D90, and Dmean delivered to the GTV from HDR and IMRT were summed to EQD2. Results: One hundred twenty-five patients received all irradiation treatment as planned, and 9 did not complete treatment. All 134 patients are included in this analysis. Treatment failure in the cervix occurred in 24 patients (18.0%). Patients with cervix failures had a lower D100, D90, and Dmean than those who did not experience failure in the cervix. The respective doses to the GTV were 41, 58, and 136 Gy for failures compared with 67, 99, and 236 Gy for those who did not experience failure (P<.001). Probit analysis estimated the minimum D100, D90, and Dmean doses required for ≥90% local control to be 69, 98, and 260 Gy (P<.001). Conclusions: Total dose delivered to the GTV from combined MRI-guided HDR and PET/CT-guided IMRT is highly correlated with local tumor control. The findings can be directly applied in the clinic for dose adaptation to maximize local control.« less
  • Purpose: To assess the significance of the ratio between standardized uptake values (SUV) of tumor and normal liver tissue obtained from positron emission tomography with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) in predicting the response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 35 HCC patients who were treated with EBRT between January 2004 and June 2007. All patients underwent FDG-PET in which SUV values were obtained from tumor and normal liver tissues and were used to calculate the ratios (SUV{sub Tumor}/SUV{sub Liver}). After FDG-PET, patients received liver treatment including concurrent chemoradiation, transarterial chemoembolization plusmore » RT, or intraarterial chemotherapy plus RT. Using three-dimensional conformal RT, median dose of 45 Gy was delivered in conventional fractions. Patients underwent abdominal/pelvic CT 1 month after RT, and treatment responses were evaluated according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria. Results: Patients were divided into high-SUV ratio group (n = 20) and low-SUV ratio group (n = 15) according to SUV ratio at a cutoff value of 2.5. Objective responses consisting of either complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) were observed in 16 and 6 patients (46% vs. 17%, p = 0.015), respectively; median survivals after RT were 8 months and 5 months (p = 0.41) for the high-SUV ratio group and the low-SUV ratio group, respectively. Rates of intrahepatic metastases (9% vs. 11%, p = 0.39) and distant metastases (32% vs. 32%, p = 0.27) showed no significant difference between two groups. Conclusions: External beam RT for HCC patients with higher SUV ratios resulted in higher response rates than for patients with lower SUV ratios. Treatment of HCC with higher SUV ratios did not result in increased survival; high rates of intrahepatic and distant metastases in both SUV groups may have affected patient survival. SUV ratios from pre-RT FDG-PET may be beneficial for selecting patients who are likely to respond to EBRT for unresectable HCC.« less
  • PurposeTo use absolute pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) derived from diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) to predict response to repetitive cTACE for unresectable liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma (CRLM) at 1 and 3 months after start of treatment.Materials and MethodsFifty-five metastases in 34 patients were examined with DWI prior to treatment and 1 month after initial cTACE. Treatment was performed in 4-week intervals. Response was evaluated at 1 and 3 months after start of therapy. Metastases showing a decrease of ≥30% in axial diameter were classified as responding lesions.ResultsOne month after initial cTACE, seven lesions showed early response. There was no significant differencemore » in absolute pretreatment ADC values between responding and non-responding lesions (p = 0.94). Three months after initial cTACE, 17 metastases showed response. There was a significant difference (p = 0.021) between absolute pretreatment ADC values of lesions showing response (median 1.08 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) and no response (median 1.30 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s). Pretreatment ADC showed fair diagnostic value to predict response (AUC 0.7). Lesions showing response at 3 months also revealed a significant increase in ADC between measurements before treatment and at one month after initial cTACE (p < 0.001). Applying an increase in ADC of 12.17%, response at 3 months after initial cTACE could be predicted with a sensitivity and specificity of 77 and 74%, respectively (AUC 0.817). Furthermore, there was a strong and significant correlation (r = 0.651, p < 0.001) between percentage change in size after third cTACE and percentage change in ADC.ConclusionIn patients with CRLM, ADC measurements are potential biomarkers for assessing response to cTACE.« less